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Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School 

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Hpostle to tbe IRortb Hmerican 3nbian0 




" Brave witness for the Faith ! He spent his day, 
In toils and perils oft, poor souls to save, 

To point his Indians to the glorious Way, 

The Truth, the Life, to rest beyond the grave ; 

Then, having walked with God in peace, lay down. 

Who shares Christ s cross receives the victor s crown. 





ACROSS the track of history the North American 
Indian has left his trail, with ineffaceable prints 
of blood. The romantic hero of fiction, the 
obstruction of civilisation, we see the red-skin, 
with his squaw and papooses, as a broken and 
demoralised remnant of an untamed host, rapidly 
retreating to those happy hunting-grounds of the 
future, where the pale-faces harry never more. It has 
been said by one who knows : " For the Indian in 
too many instances, the gospel of bullets has been 
preached more loudly than the Gospel of love." This 
is lamentably true, and if it were the object of this 
book to recite the history of this unhappy people, 
much sinned against, however much sinning, a story 
could be told which would or should make the ears 
of the readers to tingle. These pages deal with a 
time when insignificant hamlets of wooden shanties 
occupied the creeks and clearings where great cities 
are now established, and vast territories were almost 
unexplored forests, held in fee by tribes of wild and 
superstitious braves. This was the parish in which 



Brainerd by deliberate choice and by evident Divine 
appointment spent his bright and glorious life. 

It will doubtless strike many readers how much 
this man and Henry Martyn had in common. They 
shared the same physical delicacy which cut short 
their lives at a like age, and they were equally 
distinguished by that constitutional sadness which 
added a sober hue to a religious experience in itself 
severe and grave. Leaving college, both early 
responded to a call to missionary work, forsaking 
friends, home, and prospects behind, to pioneer the 
kingdom of heaven in distant lands. Martyn, how 
ever, gave up the ghost in Persian solitudes, while 
Brainerd came home to die amid his friends. The 
character of Brainerd, too, had not the metaphysical 
complexity of Martyn s mind, no love disappointment 
had spoiled the music of his life, neither was the crown 
of intellectual honours his temptation, for the only 
noticeable fact about his college life is his expulsion 
from Yale. But notwithstanding these and other 
divergences, the two men were of the same mould, 
and stand out clearly in the history of missionary 
service, as brothers in feeling and action, though 
separated by a century of years. Both have left to 
the world a literary treasure in their letters and 
diaries. Those of Henry Martyn are rightly adjudged 
a classic, with scarcely a superior in English letters, 
and those of David Brainerd, which first inspired 
Martyn with missionary enthusiasm, are of equal 
excellence. They severally reveal the heart of the 
writer as nothing else could do. The strange fluctua 
tions of spiritual feeling ; the unsparing and searching 
introspective watchfulness ; the blend of spiritual 
travail and inspiring faith ; the soul now hiding wing 
less in the grass of abasement, then fluttering with 
sweetest carol in the blue of heaven. 

No apology need surely be offered for the frequent 
quotations in these pages from Brainerd s remarkable 
journal. When John Wesley, who lived nearer to 


Brainerd s day than we, and had personal knowledge 
of the Indians, was anxious to preserve the zeal of his 
people, he put to his Conferences this question : 
" What can be done in order to revive the work of 
God where it is decayed ? " answering it with the 
emphatic counsel, " Let every preacher read carefully 
over the life of David Brainerd." This advice is not out 
of date to-day, and it would be well if every divinity 
student, and all Sunday-school teachers, kept well 
before them the stimulating thoughts of this patient 
well-doer in the kingdom of God. 

If it should be asked what were the characteristics 
of Brainerd which made him such a helpful study to 
his successors, they may be readily summed up. 

He was a man of one grand idea, that of saving 
souls. The whole force of his nature focussed here, 
he lived to serve his God, and in every page of his 
journal we find the same quenchless thirst after the 
ingathering of these poor savages to the kingdom of 
grace. Lest anything should hinder him in this 
Divine quest, he was ever on the watch to divest him 
self of any allurements which might stand in rivalry 
and betray his heart. 

He believed intensely in the existence of the 
Author of Evil and a place of punishment for all who 
serve him. There was no enervating tepidity about 
his views on points of doctrine, his audiences always 
were to him a number of immortal souls more or less 
under Satanic jurisdiction and needing the only 
remedy, that of the cleansing blood of Jesus Christ 
the Lord. 

He was the disciple of discipline, not only by being 
in perils oft, and suffering hardships enough to daunt 
the most heroic, but his own heart had been purged 
of self-love and crucified in its affections and lusts. 
His spiritual experiences, judging from his own words 
about them, must have been fierce and cleansing fires. 

He was, as all Christ s true men and women must 
be, mighty in prayer. It was his habit to spend long 


nights in the dark forests, with strong cryings to God, 
a very wrestling with the Almighty for the salvation 
of sinners. His whole life seems to have been divided 
between preaching and prayer, hastening to the woods 
after some discouragement to meet his Lord for 
renewal of faith and confidence, or, with a whole 
heartful of thanksgiving casting himself on the ground 
and crying, " Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but 
unto Thy name be the glory." 

He was also a man of sympathy. With all the 
awakening faithfulness of his ministry, he had ever a 
tender solicitude for his "poor Indians," comforting 
them when in tears, and bravely standing up for them 
where he saw the white man oppressing or defrauding 
them. Their children loved and trusted him, and ran 
to listen to his words. 

Above all he was a man who lived very near to 
Christ. Although often bewailing his coldness of 
heart and languor of love, one cannot help feeling 
that this man knew his Lord with reverent intimacy, 
and walked with Him, until the Divine hand opened 
the gate of everlasting bliss for His servant to enter, 
and go no more out for ever. Such high communion 
this man had, such glorious revelations of his Master s 
presence, that his path through the dreary solitudes 
of forest and wilderness became hallowed ground. 
If the reading of Brainerd s life teaches nothing else, 
it will not fail to impress every one with a profound 
sense of what a consecrated man may be and do. 
Contact with such a character is inspiration, and to 
know his heart is to enter a sanctuary. 







































" I will send a Prophet to you, 
A Deliverer of the nations 
Who shall guide you and shall teach you, 
Who shall toil and suffer with you. 
If you listen to his counsels, 
You will multiply and prosper ; 
If his warnings pass unheeded, 
You will fade away and perish ! " 

Longfellow s "Hiawatha" 

HTM1E North American Red Indian in his sprayed 

feathers and moccasins forms a conspicuous 

J[ and well - known figure in the stones with 

which the young people on both sides of the 

Atlantic are familiar. He has always held a position 



of respectability compared with other wild men of the 
woods living a life of freedom and sport, brave in 
conflict, solemn in council over the pipe of peace, 
fond of his squaw and the little red youngsters who 
gamboled at the door of his wigwam, a mighty hunter, 
and yet pausing in the prairie solitudes to kneel in 
the presence of the Great Spirit ; such is the Indian of 
literature. Perhaps the picture has been drawn a 
little fancifully, possibly the cruel torturing nature, 
the sly cunning, and the treachery of the warpath 
have not been truthfully disclosed, but in many 
respects the redskin was once, if he is not to-day, a 
noble savage with many fine characteristics, having a 
nature capable under Divine culture of many grand 
possibilities. Unhappily the white man has not 
improved the red man, except where the former has 
carried the message of the Cross, and by this time 
devastating wars and drink, the dreadful scourge of 
all the nations, has reduced this fine race of braves to 
a miserable group of exiles on their own land. 

The story which is to be told in the following 
pages is of the early history of the Red Indians, and 
of one who gave himself up to the work of preaching 
the Gospel to them, and pointing them to heaven. 
The better however to understand what led up to the 
work which Brainerd took in hand so nobly, a brief 
glance at the experience of the earlier missionaries 
will not be out of place. 

Although the gallant admirals of Queen Elizabeth 
in their visits to the newly discovered shores of 
America did not altogether neglect the Christian 
teaching of the natives with whom they came in 
contact, it cannot be said that mission work began with 
any enthusiasm until the seventeenth century, when 
religious intolerance drove the Pilgrim Fathers from 
their native land to seek a home in New England, 
where they might worship God according to the 
dictates of their own conscience. As will be seen 
later on, it was in the Mayflower, or one of the other 


ships of the Puritan refugees, that the ancestors of 
David Brainerd sailed for the new home across the 
wide sea. 

But the first missionary was John Eliot, once a 
young schoolmaster in an Essex village, who in the 
year 1646 had gained the confidence of the Indians 
amongst whom he had taken up his abode, and suc 
ceeded in mastering their language, and constructing 
a grammar thereof, which has since been of much 
service to his successors. He worked with great 
industry in their cause, and actually secured so much 
interest and support in England, that the House of 
Commons and the Universities of Oxford and Cam 
bridge contributed money freely for his enterprise. 

With this he bought land, built towns, founded a 
sort of Commonwealth like his own country had at 
home, and got the Indian Christians to express publicly 
their confessions, and testify to their faithful belief 
in the new religion. A very curious book he wrote, 
called "Tears of Repentance," dedicating it in this 
wise to Oliver Cromwell : "What the Jews once said 
of their centurion, he loved our nation, and built us a 
synagogue, the same may be affirmed upon a more 
noble accompt of your Lordship, and of those faithful 
centurions and soldiers under your control," etc. 
The work is now very rare, and as the original volume, 
in strange old type, and queer spelling, on yellow 
faded leaves, lies before the present writer, he cannot 
forbear making a quotation of some of the experi 
ences of those very earliest labourers, as told by John 
Eliot, under the title " The Day-Breaking, if not the 
Sun-Rising of the Gospel with the Indians in New 

After the Gospel had been preached, we read : 

" They told us they were troubled, but they could not 
tell what to fay to it, what mould comfort them ; hee 
therefore, who fpake to them at firft, concluded with a 
dolefull defcription (fo farre as his ability to fpeake in that 


tongue would carry him), of the trembling and mourning 
condition of every foul that dies in fmne, and that mail be 
caft out of favour with God. Thus after three houres 
time thus fpent with them, wee afked them if they were 
not weary, and they anfwered no. But we refolved to 
leave them with an appetite ; the chiefe of them, feeing 
us conclude with prayer, deflred to know when wee 
would come againe, fo we appointed the time, and having 


given their children ibme apples, and the men fome 
tobacco, and what elfe we then had in hand, they defired 
fome more ground to build a towne together, which we 
did much like of, promifmg to fpeake for them to the 
generall court, that they might poffefs all the compafs of 
the hill upon which their wigwams then flood, and fo wee 
departed, with many welcoms from them." 


Then, after a time, John Eliot and his companions 
visit the Indians again on the nth of November, 
1646, and having spoken once more upon the Christian 
faith, pause to see the effect of their words upon the 
ring of red-skinned listeners. 

" The firft queftion was fuddenly propounded by an 
old man then prefent, who, hearing faith and repentance 
preacht upon them to find falvation by Jefus Chrift, hee 
afked whether it was not too late for fuch an old man as 
hee, who was neare death, to repent or feek after God ? 
This queftion affected us not a little with compaflion, 
and we held forth to him the Bible, and told him what 
God faid in it concerning fuch as are hired at the eleventh 
houre of the day ; wee told him, alfo, that if a father had 
a fonne that had beene difobedient many yeares, yet if, at 
laft, that fonne fall down upon his knees, and weepe and 
defire his father to love him, his father is fo merciful that 
hee will readily forgive and love him, fo we faid it was 
much more with God, who is a more merciful Father to 
thofe whom he hath made fo. . . . Having thus fpent 
the whole afternoon, and night being almost come upon 
us, confidering that the Indians formerly defired to know 
how to pray, and did thinke that Jefus Chrift did not 
underftand Indian language, one of us therefore propofed 
to pray in their owne language, and did fo for about a 
quarter of an hour together, wherein divers of them held 
upeies and hands whenever all of them (af we underftood 
afterwards), underftanding the fame, and one of them I 
caft my eyes upon was hanging doune his head, with his 
rug before his eyes, weeping ; at firft I feared it was for 
lome forenefs of his eyes, but lifting up his head againe, 
having wiped his eyes (as not defirous to be feene), 1 
eafily perceived his eyes were not fore, yet fomewhat red 
with crying ; and fo held up his head for a while, yet 
luch was the prefence and mighty power of the Lord 
Jefus in his heart that hee hung down his head againe, and 
covered his eyes againe, and fo fell wiping and wiping of 
them, weeping abundantly, continuing thus till prayer 


was ended ; after which hee prefently turnes from us, and 
turnes his face to a fide, and corner of the wigwam, and 
there fals aweeping more abundantly by himfelfe, which 
one of us perceiving, went up to him, and fpake to him 
encouraging words, at the hearing of which hee fell 
a-weeping more and more, fo leaving him he who fpake 
to him came unto mee (being newly gone out of the 
wigwam), and tolde mee of his teares, fo we resolved to 
goe againe both of us to him, and fpeake to him againe, 
and we met him comming out of the wigwam, and there 
we fpake againe to him, and he there fell into a more 
abundant renewed weeping, like one inwardly and deeply 
affected indeed, which forced us alfo to fuch bowels of 
companion that wee could not forbear weeping over him 
alfo, and fo we parted, greatly rejoicing for fuch fowing." 

In due time Eliot obtained such influence over the 
Indians, that he persuaded them to abandon their 
roving life, and settle in a town which was built under 
his direction and called " Noonatomen," which is 
Indian for " Rejoicing." He framed laws, not unlike 
those which prevailed in Puritan England at home, 
and translated the works of Baxter and other sound 
divines of that age for them to read. Subsequently, 
the town of Nantick, on the Charles River, was 
founded in 1651, and on a solemn fast-day he 
gathered the Indians together, and, like Moses speak 
ing to the Children of Israel, he exhorted them to 
serve the Lord. But then as now, civilisation brought 
some evils in its train, and the terrible effects of 
strong drink were so manifest, that neither whipping 
nor heavy fines could restrict its traders, of whose 
business Eliot spoke as follows : " These scandalous 
evils greatly blemish and intercept their entertain 
ment of the Gospel, through the policy of Satan, who 
counter-worketh Christ that way, with not a little 
uncomfortable success." 

Eliot was at this time the pastor of Roxbury, and 
endeavoured to raise a native ministry, sending to 


college two young converted Indians, who, however, 
never lived to be useful in the work. The Puritan 
missionary, therefore, had to labour single-handed, and 
the unremitting nature of his travelling and preach 
ing may be told in his own words, where he says in a 
letter : " I have not been dry night nor day, from the 
third day of the week to the sixth, but have travelled 
from place to place m that condition, and at night I 
pull off my boots and wring my stockings, and on 
with them again, and so continue. The rivers also 
have raised, so that we were wet in riding through 
them. But God steps in and helps me. I have con 
sidered the exhortation of Paul to his son Timothy, 
1 Endure hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Christ/ 
with many other such like meditations." 

Great trouble, however, came upon those " praying 
Indians," as they were called, for an influential chief 
managed to incite the various tribes against the 
English settlers, and a terrible onslaught was made 
upon the white men and their families, farms were 
ruthlessly burnt, and the people, including the help 
less children, brutally murdered. Then came the 
inevitable reprisals ; the Government sent the military 
to avenge those outrages, and although the Christian 
natives had, with few exceptions, kept aloof from 
their fanatical comrades, and stood loyal to their 
friends, they were suspected of complicity and had to 
pay the penalty. It was a bitter experience for Eliot, 
now an aged man, to see the very Indian towns 
which he had established broken up, and this too 
carried on with relentless violence by the whites, who 
drove the Christian natives into hiding, and destroyed 
the work which the patient industry and endurance of 
many years had built up. 

But this man was the grand pioneer of Christian 
missionary work among the Indians, and although he 
closed his career amid circumstances of much discour 
agement, John Eliot will always be remembered as bear 
ing, not without tears and weariness, the brunt of the 



battle for the Cross, and making, like John the Baptist, 
a highway for the spread of the Gospel of the Lord 
Jesus Christ among the wild redskins of the New World. 

Just two hundred years ago, as the flowers of the 
early summer were blooming, and the foliage of the 
Indian forest had burst forth into freshest green, this 
eminent saint of God lay dying. His thoughts 
were all for the Indians, and the work he loved so 
well. Here are his last words : " There is a dark 
cloud upon the work of the Gospel among them. 
The Lord revive and prosper that work, and grant 
that it may live when I am dead. It is a work that 
I have been doing much and long about. But what 
was the word I spoke last ? I recall that word my 
doings. Alas ! they have been poor and small and 
lean doings, and I will be the man who will throw 
the first stone at them aH. . . . Welcome joy ! Come, 
Lord, come ! " 

God was not unmindful of the prayer of his servant, 
and within twenty years of his death a boy was born 
who was destined to take up the gracious labour he 
laid down, and whose life and work will be the theme 
of the following pages. But before restoring from 
the mist of past years the living figure and the brave 
deeds of his successor, it is fitting that we linger for 
one moment more over John Eliot s message and the 
fruits seen after many days. Once more turning over 
the pages of that ancient volume which survives, a 
pathetic memento, the wreck of more than two 
centuries, we catch sight of the last of those confes 
sions or testimonies which he noted down from the 
lips of the North American Indians, the simple heart 
felt utterance of those who had found in Christ a 
Saviour. It refers to the two little Indian children, 
three years old, whose father had already expressed 
his faith in the Lord Jesus. There is scarcely a more 
affecting incident in the literature of missions, and 
here, in John Eliot s own words, after so many years, 
the story, for the first time, shall be told : 


" This Spring, in the beginning of the year 1652, the 
Lord was pleafed to affect fundry of our praying Indians 
with a grievous difease, whereof fome with great torments 
in their bowels died, among which were two little children 
of the age above-said, and at that time both in one house, 
being together taken with this difeafe. The first of thefe 
Children in the extremities of its torments lay crying to 
God in thefe words, " God and Jefus Chrifl, God and Jefus 
Chrift, help me" and when they gave it anything to eat, it 
would greedily take it (as it is ufual at the approach of 
Deathe) but firft it would cry to God, " O God and Jefus 
Chrift, blefs it" and then it would take it ; and in this 
manner it lay calling upon God and Jefus Chrift untill it 
died. The mother of this child alfo died of that difeafe, 
at that time. The father of the child told me this 
ftory, with great wonderment at the grace of God, in 
teaching his child fo to call upon God. The name of 
the father is Nifhohkon, whose confeflion you have 

u Three or four days after, another child in the fame 
houfe, fick of the fame difeafe was (by a Divine hand 
doubtlefs) fenfible of the approach of death (an unufual 
thing at that age) and called to its Father and faid 
c Father^ I am going to GodJ feveral times repeating it, 
c / am going to God The Mother (as other mothers ufed 
to do) had made for the Child a little Bafket, a little 
Spoon, and a little Tray, thefe things the Child was 
wont to be greatly delighted withal (as all children 
will) therefore, in the extremity of the torments they fet 
those things before it to divert the mind and cheer the 
fpirit, but now the child takes the Bafket and puts it 
away and faid, / will leave my Bajket behind me for I am 
going to God, I will leave my Spoon and Tray behind me 
(putting thefe away) for I am going to God : and with 
thefe kind of expreffions the fame night finifhed its courfe 
and died. 

" The Father of this child is Robert Speen^ whofe 
confeffions you have before, and in one of them he maketh 
mention of this child that died in Faith. When he 


related this ftory to me, he faid he could riot tell whether 
the forrow for the death of his child or the joy for its faith 
were greater when it died " 

" These examples," adds Eliot, "are a testimony that 
they teach their children the knowledge and fear of 
God, whom they now call upon, and also that the 
Spirit of God co-worketh with their instructions, who 
teacheth by man more than man is able to do." With 
this sweet fragment, we bid John Eliot farewell. 
In noting down for us the heartfelt testimony of 
these Indian converts, he has indeed taught us how 
the Spirit of God " teacheth by man more than man 
is able to do." These stalwart natives, drawn from 
their dark superstitions and ignorance to a know 
ledge of the true God, like Peter, are ready to declare 
unto their brethren how the Lord hath brought 
them out of prison. Their simplicity and childlike 
faith are beautiful characteristics, and the veteran 
missionary is not slow to appreciate them. The 
good old man, who looks from a portrait before us, of 
grave aspect, with solid and determined countenance 
not unlike the Lord Protector himself, his wavy hair 
falling upon the broad white Puritan collar, and with 
his old-fashioned bulky Bible in his hand, we see him 
standing by the wigwams, while the Indians, in 
attitudes of deep attention, spread themselves about 
him listening to his words. The little brown children 
venture near him and catch the name of Jesus, as the 
retreating sunlight fills the forest with a shadowy 
silence. The scene fast fades, the mist of many years 
rolls up again, blots out the group of listeners, blurrs 
the overarching trees, and again noiselessly envelops 
in oblivion the figure of the preacher, whose voice 
just now we could almost fancy we hear. For a 
moment it all was vivid to us, a breathing human 
group, and the other vision too of the little sufferers 
in their wigwams calling on God and Christ and 
putting their toys aside, because they were going to 


Him. Was it not all so real, so living, so heart- 
reaching? We will not willingly let the picture be 
dissolved in forgetfulness. Rather will we cherish its 
memory and keep it as a background as our eyes now 
turn to the approaching figure of a tall, spare young 
man with eyes lustrous and sad, DAVID BRAINERD, 

" Lord, give the word ; and waked by Thee, 

Let many tongues Thy victory tell, 
That hopeless sinners may now see 

That Thou hast vanquished Death and Hell ; 
Sound, sound the joyful truth abroad ; 

Let sinners now draw nigh to God. 
And Thou victorious Lord all hail ! 

Immortal honours deck Thy brow. 
When Death and Hell Thy friends assail 

They find in Thee a refuge now ; 
Thy name shall furnish them with arms, 

And free their souls from all alarms." 

Thos. Kelly. 



" O Lord ! that I could waste my life for others 

With no ends of my own, 
That I could pour myself into my brothers 
And live for them alone ! 

" Such was the life Thou triedst, self abjuring, 

Thine own pains never easing, 
Our burdens bearing, our just doom enduring, 
A life without self-pleasing." Frederick W. Faber. 

"r I "A H E men of the Mayflower" has become a phrase 
in the history of our country which will not be 
JL easily forgotten. It marks a period when the 
intolerance of a foolish king drove from the 
shores of the old country those Puritans of sturdy 
piety who were destined to found another England 
across the sea. Thus the keel of the little Mayflower 
carried the future destinies of that mighty Anglo- 
Saxon commonwealth, which shares not only our 



speech, but our love for the Bible, and a desire for the 
evangelisation of the world. 

It is not clear, from the vague data of his ancestry 
upon which we have to rely, whether the forefathers 
of David Brainerd actually sailed from England in 
the Mayflower, but there can be no doubt about the 
fact that his great grandfather on his mother s side, 
the Rev. Peter Hobart, was at one time a minister of 
the Gospel at Hingham in the county of Norfolk, 
and in consequence of the persecution of the Puritans, 
did take ship, and remove with his family to New 
England where he formed another church, and called 
the settlement after the name of the village from 
which he had been driven in the old land. It is also 
clear that his grandmother was the daughter of 
another Puritan divine, the Rev. Samuel Whiting, 
also an Eastern counties man, for he ministered at 
Boston in Lincolnshire, before he in turn left for the 
shores of New England and founded the town of 
Lynn in Massachusetts. Thus we see of what stock 
he sprang, and the old theology of the Puritans clung 
to him all through life. It is difficult now to under 
stand, and still more to appreciate, the strict and 
unlovely discipline of a child s training in those far off 
days. There is every reason to believe, that at a very 
early age the mind of the boy David was cast in a 
serious, and what appears to us, an unnaturally solemn 
mould. His father, Hezekiah Brainerd, who at the time 
of David s birth, the 2Oth of April, 1718, was living at 
Haddam, Hartford, in the new colony of Connecticut, 
died when the boy was only a child, and was speedily 
followed by the mother, so that the family were left 
orphans very early. David was the third of the four 
sons, and like Henry Martyn seems to have inherited 
a delicacy of constitution, with a strong predisposition 
to consumption, from which disease one of his 
brothers died. How far this hereditary ill-health 
predisposed him to a melancholy turn we can only 
conjecture ; certain it is that David, at a time when 

2 4 


other boys are full of games and boisterous play, was 
a mournful little lad. He tells us in the diary, in that 
portion of it which was fortunately preserved after his 
death, a little about his feelings at this time, and no 
words can better describe these days and his conver 
sion in childhood than his own. 

" I was from my youth," says he, " somewhat sober 
and inclined rather to melancholy than the contrary 
extreme; but do not remember anything of conviction 
of sin, worthy of remark, till I was, I believe, about 

seven or eight years of age. Then I became con 
cerned for my soul, and terrified at the thoughts of 
death, and was driven to the performance of duties, 
but it appeared a melancholy business, that destroyed 
my eagerness for play. And though, alas ! this 
religious concern was short-lived, I sometimes attended 
secret prayer, and thus lived at ease in Zion, without 
God in the world, and without much concern, as 
I remember, till I was about thirteen years of age. 
"But, sometime in the winter 1732, 1 was roused out 


of carnal security by I scarce know what means at 
first ; but was much excited by the prevailing of a 
mortal sickness in Haddam. I was frequent, constant, 
and somewhat fervent in duties, and took delight in 
reading, especially Mr. Janeway s * Token for Child 
ren. I felt sometimes much inclined to duties, and 
took great delight in the performance of them, and 
I sometimes hoped that I was converted, or at least 
in a good and hopeful way for heaven and happiness, 
not knowing what conversion was. The Spirit of God 
at this time proceeded far with me; I was remarkably 
dead to the world, and my thoughts were almost 
wholly employed about my soul s concerns and I may 
indeed say * Almost I was persuaded to be a Christ 
ian. I was also exceedingly distressed and melan 
choly at the death of my mother in March, 1732. 
But afterwards my religious concern began to decline 
and by degrees I fell back into a considerable degree 
of security, though I still attended secret prayer." 

The boy already seemed to be haunted with that 
self-condemnation and unsettlement of trust which 
were the characteristics of the Calvinist experience ot 
his day. He had the fear of death before his eyes, 
and felt that the best way to obtain peace and free 
dom from his terrors was immersing himself in a 
round of duties, some, no doubt, of a painful character, 
in order to wean himself from love of self and of the 
world. Such methods, however, could not possibly 
have the desired result, and with his father and mother 
both removed to another world, he seems to have had 
none to point him to " a more excellent way." He 
grew up in the same mood, condemning himself 
roundly for the slightest pleasure, and in a most 
literal sense " working out his own salvation with 
fear and trembling." Nearly sixteen now, the follow 
ing is the retrospect of his experience, recorded in his 
diary : 

"About the I5th of April, 1733, 1 removed from my 
father s house to East Haddam where I spent four 


years, but still without God in the world though for 
the most part I went a round of secret duty. I was 
not much addicted to young company, or frolicking, as 
it is called, but this I know, when I did go into such 
company, I never returned with so good a conscience 
as when I went, it always added new guilt, made me 
afraid to come to the throne of grace, and spoilt those 
good frames I was wont sometimes to please myself 
with. But, alas ! all my good frames were but self- 
righteousness, not founded on a desire for the glory 
of God. 

" About the latter end of April, 1737, being full nine 
teen years of age, I removed to Durham to work on 
my farm, and so continued about one year, frequently 
longing from a natural inclination after a liberal 
education. When about twenty years of age I applied 
myself to study, and was now engaged more than ever 
in the duties of religion. I became very strict and 
watchful over my thoughts, words, and actions, and 
thought I must be sober indeed, because I designed 
to devote myself to the ministry, and imagined I did 
dedicate myself to the Lord/ 

Although still profoundly dissatisfied with himself, 
and suspecting every little emotion of pleasure as a 
temptation to self-righteousness, David Brainerd con 
tinued to pursue a round of religious exercises and 
duties. He went in April, 1738, to live with Mr. Fiske, 
who was the minister at Hacldam, Hartford, Connecti 
cut, and this good man urged David to withdraw alto 
gether from the society of other young men, so that he 
might devote himself without distraction to the study 
of holy things. In less than a year he had read the 
Bible twice through, gave the utmost attention to the 
preaching of the Gospel, and snatched every moment 
he could for secret prayer and self-examination. This 
earnest seeking after God soon made him yearn for 
the fellowship of others like-minded, and just as 
Wesley met with his fellow-students to pray and hold 
sacred converse under the college walls at Oxford, we 


find Brainerd every Sunday evening gathering with 
a number of earnest young men to worship and glorify 
their common Lord. Lest he should lose sight of the 
truths which he heard, it was his custom to commit the 
discourse of the day to memory, and repeat the same 
when alone, sometimes at midnight hour. Such a young 
man one would think might be credited with a sincere 
zeal and a pious mind, yet, Brainerd we find still be 
wailing himself. This is his own comment on all 
these religious observances : " I had a very good out 
side and rested entirely on my duties, though not 
sensible of it After Mr. Fiske s death I proceeded 
in my learning with my brother ; was still very con 
stant in religious duties, and often wondered at the 
levity of professors ; it was a trouble to me that they 
were so careless in religious matters. Thus I pro 
ceeded a considerable length on a self-righteous foun 
dation and should have been entirely lost and undone 
had not the mere mercy of God prevented." 

Much of the experience of Brainerd at this time 
was very like that of John Bunyan, who in his walks 
abroad was constantly tempted of Satan, and lived 
in perpetual fear and awe of God. The mind of 
David Brainerd seems to have been perpetually set 
on " frames and feelings," he looks with fearful interest 
into the pool of his heart s experience, and sees there 
nothing but unrest and buffeting waves, which also 
could in no degree reflect the image of his Saviour. 
To such an extent did this poor young man worry 
himself, that he looked upon nature and wished from 
his inmost soul that he also could be free of this 
terrible burden of spiritual responsibility. Thus he 
writes in his private diary : 

" Sometime in the beginning of winter 1738 it 
pleased God on one Sabbath morning, as I was walk 
ing out for some secret duties, to give me on a sudden 
such a sense of my danger, and the wrath of God, 
that I stood amazed, and my former good frames 
that I had pleased myself with, all presently vanished. 



From the view I had of my sin and vileness I was 
much distressed all that day, fearing the vengeance 
of God would soon overtake me. I was much 
dejected, kept much alone, and sometimes envied the 
birds and beasts their happiness, because they were 
not exposed to eternal misery as I evidently saw I 
was. And thus I lived from day to day being fre-:" 
quently in great distress, sometimes there appeared 
mountains before me to obstruct my hopes of mercy, 
and the work of conversion appeared so great that I 


thought I should never be the subject of it I used, 
however, to pray and cry to God and perform other 
duties with great earnestness, and thus hoped by 
some means to make the case better." 

For a long time Brainerd continued under this 
cloud ; here and there a break occurred, speedily to be 
drowned in darkness, for, like many a sincere but 
wretched man since his day, poor Brainerd vexed his 
soul with doubts as to whether he stood among the 
elect or not. A voice, he says, seemed to cry in his 
ears, "It is done, it is done, for ever impossible to 


deliver yourself, " and he also tells us he got thinking 
upon God s sovereignty until he shuddered as "a 
poor trembling creature to venture off some high 

At last, however, light came, the light of assurance, 
and Brainerd was for the first time filled with 
unspeakable joy. The occasion seems to have been 
almost a vision, for the Lord vouchsafed him a 
glorious manifestation of His presence. He notes the 
day very carefully, the I2th of July, 1739, a Sunday 
evening, the close of a week of exceeding wretched 
ness, and he had, as was his wont, gone out into some 
solitary spot, far from men, to commune with his God. 
The remarkable occurrence which followed, and 
which may be considered the hour of his conversion, 
cannot be told better than in his own words : 

" Having been thus endeavouring to pray though 
as I thought very stupid and senseless for near half- 
an-hour, then as I was walking in a dark thick grove, 
unspeakable glory seemed to open to the view and 
apprehension of my soul. I do not mean any exter 
nal brightness, for I saw no such thing, nor do I 
intend any imagination of any body of light some 
where in the third heavens or anything of that nature, 
but it was a new inward apprehension or view that I 
had of God, such as I never had before, nor anything 
which had the least resemblance of it. I stood still, 
wondered and admired ! I knew that I never had 
seen before anything comparable to it for excellency 
and beauty, it was widely different from all the con 
ceptions that ever I had of God or things Divine. 
I had no particular apprehension of any one Person 
in the Trinity, either the Father, the Son, or the 
Holy Ghost, but it appeared to be Divine glory. My 
soul rejoiced with joy unspeakable to see such a God, 
such a glorious Divine Being, and I was inwardly 
pleased and satisfied that He should be God over all 
for ever and ever. My soul was so captivated and 
delighted with the excellency, loveliness, greatness, 


and other perfections of God, that I was even 
swallowed up in Him, at least to that degree that 
I had no thought that I remember at first about my 
own salvation, and scarce reflected that there was 
such a creature as myself." 

This moment of exceeding glory marks the spirit 
ual starting point of David Brainerd, although the 
peace was not of sustained duration, and the radiance 
was soon bedimmed with gathering clouds again. 
We shall, indeed, in following the chequered history 
of his after-life, catch, from time to time, glimpses of 
this grey melancholy, this pious gloom, which he 
seemed to almost cherish as part of his dismal creed. 
It would be scarcely sufficient to describe his spiritual 
experience as April weather for the transitions were 
oftentimes from bleak November gloom into the 
warmth and sunny blaze of June, and back again. In 
his subsequent travels over the Indian wilderness, the 
lonely man seems to have felt how this depressing and 
stormy environment had its reflection and counterpart 
in the tempests within his own breast. But even 
when the shadows gathered thickest about his feet, 
there was above him a bit of blue, a stream of Divine 
light showing him that in exceeding weakness there 
was strength and grace sufficient for his need. 
The Calvinistic severity of the Puritanic creed so 
often repels us with the joyless aspect of its experience; 
and yet, though the tree seems flowerless, it has its 
roots in a firm faith in God, and bore fruits of heroic 
endurance and righteousness. In reading this old 
diary of Brainerd the wonder rises whether this man 
was really so spiritually depressed as he appears by 
his own account, or if it is possible that this testa 
ment of his inner life tells rather the tale of what he 
felt than what he was. However that may be, the 
spiritual manifestation just recorded was a real thing 
to David Brainerd ; henceforth he seems to more fre 
quently lose sight of self, poor, unsatisfactory, and 
ever troublesome self, and his thoughts centre more 


upon the will of God, and his own responsibility in 
doing the same. That sweet New England singer of 
our day, John Greenleaf Whittier, in one of his frag 
ments of verse, expresses what maybe was the heart- 
feeling of Brainerd at this time : 

" There let me strive with each besetting sin, 

Recall my wandering fancies, and restrain 

The sore disgust of a restless brain ; 

And as the path of duty is made plain, 
May grace be given that I may walk therein ; 

Not like the hireling, for his selfish gain, 
With backward glances, and reluctant tread, 
Making a merit of his coward deed ; 

But cheerful, with light around me thrown, 
Walking as one to pleasant service led, 

Doing God s will as if it were my own, 
Yet trusting not in mine but in His strength alone ! " 



" Shine, my only day-star, shine, 
So mme eyes shall wake by thine ; 
So the dreams I grope in now 
To clear visions all shall grow ; 
So my day shall measured be 
By Thy grace s charity ; 
So shall I discern the path 
My sweet love prescribed hath ; 
For Thy ways cannot be shown 
By any light but by Thine own." J. Beaumont, 

WHEN the time came for David Brainerd to 
enter Yale College at New Haven, he pre 
pared himself for the step with many mis 
givings. He felt that in the society of so 
many young men he might not be able to maintain 
his Christian profession ; or, at any rate, enjoy those 
seasons of secret communion which had been so 
precious to him at Haddam. These anticipations 
fortunately were not realised ; but, on the whole, 


his college career was far from being an agreeable 

He had been scarcely six months at Yale before 
an epidemic of measles attacked the students, and 
Brainerd was sent home very ill indeed. The disease 
took a severe course in his case, and for days his 
friends despaired of his life. But his time was not 
yet ; God had yet a work for him to do, and he was 
immortal until its accomplishment. He was pleased 
to find that such a nearness to the grave produced in 
his mind no fears of death, and his sick-bed became 
the place of much gracious meditation on the provi 
dence of God. On his recovery, he returned to 
College, and was so anxious to make up for lost time 
that he began to suspect " that, by reason of hard and 
close studies, and being much exposed on account of 
my freshmanship, I had but little time for spiritual 
duties, my soul often mourned for want of more 
time and opportunity to be alone with God." He 
began to doubt, as Henry Martyn did after him, 
whether this direction of energy upon his examina 
tions, and studious work, was not possibly antago 
nistic to his proper regard for the law of the Lord. 
" Though, indeed, my ambition in my studies greatly 
wronged the activity and vigour of my spiritual life, 
yet this was usually the case with me, that in the 
multitude of my thoughts within me, God s comforts 
principally delighted my soul, these were my greatest 
consolations day by day." 

The next event which from Brainerd s point of view 
acted prejudicially to him at the college was, strange 
to say, a great spiritual awakening among the 
students. In this it is evidently shown that he took 
a zealous part, but Jonathan Edwards, who edits his 
private journal, is careful to point out that " Yet he was 
afterwards abundantly sensible that his religious expe 
riences and affections at that time were not free from 
a corrupt mixture, nor his conduct to be acquitted 
from many things which were imprudent and blame- 



able, which he greatly lamented himself, and was 
desirous that others should not make an ill use of 
such an example. And therefore, though at the time 
he kept a constant diary, containing a very particular 
account of what passed from day to day, for the next 
thirteen months from the latter end of January, 1741, 
forementioned in two small books which he called 
the first two volumes of his diary, next following the 
account before given of his convictions, conversion and 
consequent comforts, yet when he lay on his death 
bed, he gave orders (unknown to me till after his 
death) that these two volumes should be destroyed, 
and in the beginning of the third book of his diary he 
writes thus, The two preceding volumes immediately 
following the account of the author s conversion are 
lost. If any are desirous of knowing how the author 
lived in general during that space of time, let them 
read the first thirty pages of this volume, where they 
will find something of a specimen of his ordinary 
manner of living through the whole space of that 
time which was about thirteen months, excepting 
that here he was more refined from some imprudences 
and indecent heats than there, but the spirit of 
devotion running through the whole was the same. " 

An evangelical revival of religion was more uncom 
mon and less understood in those days than now, and 
from what his biography further states on the subject, 
the principal temptation upon which Brainerd reflects 
with such shame, was a zeal which was not seemly for 
one "who was not only young in years, but very 
young in religion and experience." It seems as 
though the enthusiasm of the young freshman was 
scarcely viewed with favour by his sedate superiors 
who probably held aloof from the results of the 
religious awakening which was stirring the college. 
Possibly Brainerd did no more harm than allow him 
self to be carried away on a stream of spiritual 
impulse for which he would have been commended 
in our day. The sum total of his offence is 


expressed in this sentence from the pen of Jonathan 
Edwards : 

" In these disadvantageous circumstances Brainerd 
had the unhappiness to have a tincture of that intem 
perate, indiscreet zeal which was at that time too 
prevalent, and was misled, from his high opinion of 
others whom he looked upon as better than himself, 
into such errors as were really contrary to the habitual 
temper of his mind." 

Poor Brainerd ! The pale-faced young man, worn 
by watchings and self-discipline, catches fire at this 
sudden flaming up of spiritual concern amongst his 
fellows at the college, sees in the movement a way for 
the glory of God, takes active part in the meetings for 
prayer and praise, actually gets excited possibly, and 
so far forgets himself in his burning zeal for souls as 
to pass judgment on the extra spiritual standing of 
those reverend persons who, high and dry, rather 
plumed themselves upon not being affected by all 
this enthusiasm. This cannot be tolerated, and the 
serious proprieties of Yale College soon found an 
occasion to rebuke it and make an example of the 
youthful Brainerd. 

One day after a meeting of these earnest students, 
Brainerd, with two or three of his intimate friends, 
remained behind chatting together and discussing one 
of the tutors, a Mr. Whittesley, who evidently had not 
struck them with a sense of his fervent zeal. 

" What, Brainerd, do you think of Mr. Whittesley ? " 
asked one of his friends. 

"He has no more grace than this chair," was the 
incautious reply. 

A listening freshman at the door caught these 
words, ran and told them to some tattling women in 
the town, who lost no time in imparting the secret to 
the rector of the college. A frenzy of indignation 
seized upon the rulers at Yale, the informing fresh 
man was examined, who quickly said it was Brainerd s 
voice he heard ; his intimate friends to whom he had 


spoken were summoned and compelled to give evi 
dence against him, and the judgment was, that 
Brainerd, as if he had been guilty of some open, 
notorious crime, "should make a public confession, 
and humble himself before the college." This David, 
like a man, declined to do, and, therefore, he was 
expelled the college. 

This harsh proceeding, a punishment altogether 
disproportionate to the offence, was a severe blow to 
Brainerd, indeed it gloomed the whole of his after-life. 
To a nature so sensitive as his the disgrace was 
insupportable, and he felt forcibly that careless and 
disrespectful as the words were which he had uttered, 
they had not been wholly without truth. Indeed, 
judging from the conduct of these irate professors, 
their possession of grace, looked at from our point of 
view, must have been slender indeed. What added to 
the mortification of Brainerd too, was the fact that his 
summary expulsion took place just before the public 
honours of the year, when, had he been among the 
students, he would have been entitled to the first 
position in the class, and have graduated with dis 
tinction. In after years, at the advice of his friends, 
he would have made many humble apologies if they 
would but withdraw his expulsion, but the authorities 
were inexorable. But while they thus embittered the 
life of Brainerd, posterity has given him the highest 
position of all who have entered that college door, 
which to-day is chiefly famous because it has the 
honour of being associated with his noble name. 

His next step was to go to Ripton, and live with 
the Reverend Mr. Mills, the minister of that village, 
where he continued his studies. While there he 
makes a significant note in his diary : 

" I then began to find it sweet to pray, and could 
think of undergoing the greatest suffering in the cause 
of Christ with pleasure, and find myself willing, if God 
should so order it, to suffer banishment from my 
native land, among the heathen, that I might do 


something for their salvation, in distresses and deaths 
of any kind." 

And then again under date 2Oth April, 1742, he 
notes that it is his twenty-fourth birthday, and praises 
the Lord for all His mercy and grace. 

" I think my soul was never drawn out so in inter 
cession for others as it has been this night. Had a 
most fervent wrestle with the Lord to-night for my 
enemies, and I hardly ever so longed to live to God 
and to be altogether devoted to Him, I wanted to 
wear out my life in His service for His glory." 

A few days afterwards we find him in a most 
ecstatic condition of soul, he is so happy that in his 
diary he pours forth his feelings in verse. " My very 
soul," says he, " pants for the complete restoration of 
the blessed image of my Saviour, that I may be fit 
for the blessed enjoyments and employments of the 
heavenly world." 

" Farewell, vain world ; my soul can bid adieu ; 
My Saviour s taught me to abandon you. 
Your charms may gratify a sensual mind, 
Not pleasure a soul wholly for God designed. 
Forbear to entice ; cease then my soul to call, 
Tis fixed through grace my God shall be my ALL. 
While He thus lets me heavenly glories view, 
Your beauties fade, my heart s no room for you." 

He was now licensed to preach, after due examina 
tion as to his learning and experience, by the associa 
tion of ministers belonging to the eastern district of 
the county of Fairfield, in Connecticut. On his sub 
sequent journeys we find the first mention of the 
Indians. " I had in a great measure," he says in his 
diary, " lost my hopes of God sending me among the 
heathen afar off, and of seeing them flock home to 
Christ. I saw so much of my hellish violences, that 
I appeared worse to myself than any devil ; I won 
dered that God would let me live, and wondered 
that the people did not stone me, much more that 


they should ever hear me preach! It seems as though 
I never could or should preach any more, yet about 
nine or ten o clock the people came over, and I was 
forced to preach. And blessed be God He gave me 
His presence and spirit in prayer and preaching, so 
that I was much assisted, and spake with power from 
Job xiv. 14. Some Indians cried out in great distress, 
and all appeared greatly concerned. After we had 
prayed, and exhorted them to seek the Lord with 
constancy, and hired an English woman to keep a 
kind of school among them, we came away about one 
o clock, and came to Judea, about fifteen or sixteen 
miles. There God was pleased to visit my soul with 
much comfort. Blessed be the Lord for all the things 
I meet with." 

For several months after this his diary is rich in 
records of a devout and self-examining mind. He 
blessed God for the wonderful mercy and favour 
which is granted him in every effort to promote the 
spread of his Master s kingdom. It was clearly his 
set purpose to make every detail of life a sacred thing ; 
to bring his religion all along the line of his career, 
so that every moment and every talent intrusted 
to him should be really held in stewardship for the 
purpose and will of his Heavenly Father. Thus 
he makes a note of small conversations with friends 
on spiritual subjects, of earnest prayers before writing 
some letters, that he might bring glory to God thereby, 
of many walks alone in the still night with heart- 
searchings and strong cryings to the Lord. The rebuff 
which he met with at college seems to have made 
Brainerd still a little suspicious of any open manifesta 
tion of a revival among his people ; the young Puritan 
is growing staid again, and cares little for emotional 
effects from his preaching of the Word. Here is a 
sentence from his private note-book of this time, 
which appears to disclose this state of mind : 

" Wednesday, 2Jth October, 1742. I spent the fore 
noon in prayer and meditation ; was not a little 


concerned about preaching in the afternoon felt 
exceedingly without strength, and very helpless 
indeed, and went into the meeting-house ashamed 
to see any come to hear such an unspeakably worth 
less wretch. However, God enabled me to speak with 
clearness, power, and pungency. But there was some 
noise and tumult in the assembly that I did not well 
like, and endeavoured to bear public testimony against 
it with moderation and mildness, through the current 
of my discourse. In the evening I was enabled to be 
in some measure thankful and devoted to God." 

This young man had an unquenchable thirst for God. 
Every page of his diary, written of course as a per 
fectly private record, and never intended for future 
publication, gleams with the fire of holy aspirations. 
It matters not in what age, or under what variation of 
circumstances they live, these saints of God, Augustine, 
Thomas a Kempis, Henry Martyn, David Brainerd, 
are in their best moments all alike so sensitive of 
their utter unworthiness, and at all times yearn for the 
indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Walking about his farm 
at New Haven, Brainerd talks with God face to face, 
and filled with the sweet hunger after righteousness, 
is according to promise filled abundantly with Divine 
love and peace. " At noon," he writes, " I longed for 
sanctification and conformity to God. Oh, that is 
THE ALL, THE ALL ! The Lord help me to press after 
God for ever." 

On the 1 9th of November of that year a messenger 
brought a missive to Brainerd which mightily fluttered 
him. It was written by the Rev. Mr. Pemberton, of 
New York, an eminent and influential minister, 
requesting him to come at once there, and take part 
in a consultation about a special mission in contem 
plation to reach the Indians. To Brainerd it seemed 
too good to be true, a prospect opening out to him 
which exceeded his utmost hopes. Of this man 
truly it could never be said that he was disposed to 
run before he was sent. Always afraid lest his poor 


heart should deceive him, and lead him into vain 
glory, he immediately brought together two or three 
Christian friends, to whom he read the letter, and 
begged their prayers and counsel. After this " sweet 
time," as he called it, he obeyed the summons, 
mounted his horse, and bade them farewell. It was 
the turning point in his life ; and as he set out upon 
that journey it was destined to be a pilgrimage of 
honour and suffering, at the end of which waited an 
early grave. 

The sight of New York, with what, to the young 
farmer minister, seemed its confusing bustle and 
agitation, almost overpowered him. The gentlemen 
who had sent for him were the correspondents in 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, of the 
Honourable Society in Scotland for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, and these instantly examined 
young Brainerd with a view to his fitness for this 
position. They were fully satisfied, and discerned 
in the humble disciple the marks of an heroic witness 
for the Cross ; one evidently called of God for the 
prosecution of this great work among the Indians. 
We have no description of this eventful gathering 
except that which Brainerd himself jots down after 
wards ; this is so characteristic of the man at possibly 
the most important juncture of his career that it must 
be quoted entire : 

" Thursday, Nov. 25, 1742. Spent much time in 
prayer and supplication ; was examined by some 
gentlemen of my Christian experiences, and my 
acquaintance with divinity, and some other studies, 
in order to my improvement in that important 
affair of gospellizing the heathen, and was made 
sensible of my great ignorance and unfitness for 
public service. I had the most abasing thoughts of 
myself I think that ever I had ; I thought myself the 
worst wretch that ever lived ; it hurts me, and pained 
my very heart that anybody should shew me any 
respect. Alas ! one thought how sadly they are 


deceived in me ! how miserably would they be dis 
appointed if they knew my inside ! Oh my heart ! 
And in this depressed condition I was forced to go 
and preach to a considerable assembly, before some 
grave and learned ministers ; but felt such a pressure 
from a sense of my vileness, ignorance, and unfitness 
to appear in public that I was almost overcome with 
it ; my soul was grieved for the congregation, that 
they should sit there to hear such a dead dog as I 
preach. I thought myself infinitely indebted to the 
people, and longed that God would reward them with 
the rewards of His grace. ... I spent much of the 
evening alone." 

" Yes, and I will and must esteem 

All things but loss for Jesus sake ; 
O may my soul be found in Him, 
And of His righteousness partake ! 

" The best obedience of my hands 

Does not appear before Thy throne ; 
But faith can answer Thy demands, 
By pleading what the Lord has done." 




" I do not ask, O Lord, that Thou shouldst shed 

Full radiance here. 
Give but a ray of peace, that I may tread 

Without a fear. 
I do not ask my cross to understand, 

My way to see ; 
Better in darkness just to feel Thy hand, 

And follow Thee." A. A. Procter. 

THE opening of the year 1743 finds David 
Brainerd bidding farewell to his friends with 
the earnest solemnity of one who does not 
expect ever to look upon their faces again. 
Dangers, neither few nor slight, awaited him in his 
new departure. The rigours of a severe winter had 
set in ; the means of conveyance were absolutely 
limited to his horse plodding over roadless wastes, 
and news came swiftly that the Indians and the 


white settlers at Fort Delaware were in conflict, and 
it would be extremely risky for the young missionary 
to venture at such a time upon his work. 

But Brainerd, standing now on the threshold of his 
new sphere, looked forward full of faith in God. He 
had long ago counted the cost, and deliberately made 
a choice which meant separation from the world of 
civilised life with its advantages, and association with 
hardship, toil, and possibly an early and lonely death. 
He calmly made his preparations. The small pro 
perty which he inherited from his father, bringing him 
in a sufficient livelihood, was immediately realised, 
and the money invested to pay the expenses of a God 
fearing young man at college as a candidate for the 
ministry. Having thus divested himself of his money 
for the glory of God, he preached his farewell sermon, 
choosing the house of an old saint, who could not 
attend public worship in consequence of infirmities ; 
and the following morning his friends for the last time 
knelt with him in prayer, and bade him good-bye. He 
rode many miles, and crossing the Sound reached Long 
Island, then inhabited by Indians. With mingled 
feelings of self-despising and hope in God did the 
young missionary approach the wigwams of the 
people for whom he was willing and glad to give 
up all that was dear, and even life itself, so that 
he might win them for Christ. On Wednesday, 
March Qth, 1743, he made this note in his diary : 

" Endeavoured to commit myself and all my con 
cerns to God. Rode sixteen miles to Manturk, and 
had some inward sweetness on the road, but some 
thing of flatness and deadness after I came there, 
and had seen the Indians. I withdrew, and endea 
voured to pray, but found myself awfully deserted and 
left, and had an afflicting sense of my vileness and 
meanness. However, I went and preached from 
Isaiah liii. 10, Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him 
etc. Had some assistance, and I trust something of 
the Divine presence was amongst us. In the evening 


I again prayed and exhorted among them, after 
having had a season alone, wherein I was so pressed 
with the blackness of my nature that I thought it was 
not fit for me to speak so much as to Indians." 

At the last moment, the instructions from the 
Society, of which he was now the representative, 
were not to go to Fort Delaware, but to proceed to 
a place called Kaunaumeck, in the province of New 
York, hidden away among the dense woods between 
Stockbridge and Albany, and inhabited almost 
entirely by the Indians. This spot he reached on 
the ist of April, and there found a lodging on a heap 
of straw. Casting himself on the ground, he was 
fiercely attacked with melancholy, and abhorred 
himself as the most detestable and unworthy of 
human beings. He longed for some Christian 
heart to cheer him ; some of the dear friends left 
far behind to support by their sympathy and counsel 
his fainting spirit. Instead of this consolation, his 
trouble was embittered by the visit of an Irishman 
and a Dutchman, who had come some distance to 
hear him preach, and indulged, to his great distress, 
in continual profanity. In his anguish of mind, he 
crept into a hovel, and there groaned out to God, 
who graciously gave His servant that comfort which 
none other could afford. 

His position was no enviable one from the point of 
view of earthly c6mfort He was not the man to 
complain, indeed he rejoiced in afflictions, and felt, 
that deserving nothing at all, the smallest gift was in 
mercy. He never knew that the words he penned 
then in the solitudes of that Indian wilderness we 
should ever read, and one night he wrote a few words 
in his diary, which gives us a fairly good idea of the 
desolateness of his position : 

" My circumstances are such," says he, " that I have 
no comfort of any kind but what I have in God. 
I live in this most lonesome wilderness, having but 
one single person to converse with that can speak 


English, most of the talk I hear is either Highland 
Scotch or Indian. I have no fellow-Christian to 
whom I might unbosom myself or lay open my 
spiritual sorrows, with whom I might take sweet 
counsel in conversation about heavenly things, and 
join in social prayer. I live poorly with regard to the 
comforts of this life, most of my diet consists of boiled 
corn, pastry, pudding, etc. I lodge in a bundle of 
straw, my labour is hard and extremely difficult, and 
I have little appearance of success to comfort me. 
The Indians have no land to live on but what the 
Dutch people lay claim to, and these threaten to 
drive them off. They have no regard to the souls of 
the poor Indians, and by what I can learn, they hate 
me because I came to preach to them. But what 
makes all my difficulties grievous to be borne is, that 
God hides His face from me" 

What a glimpse of a brave soul in perpetual 
spiritual eclipse, but sticking to his post of duty, 
loyal to God ; " Though He slay me, yet will I trust 
in Him." With his own hands he built himself a hut 
to dwell in, and night after night leaving this poor 
abode he would wander on the dark moor, talking, 
moaning, praying by turns, now catching bright 
glimpses of heavenly rapture, then plunged again 
into gloomy dejection. 

" I have been so crushed down sometimes," he 
writes, "with a sense of my meanness and infinite 
unworthiness, that I have been ashamed that any, 
even the meanest of my fellow-creatures, should so 
much as spend a thought about me, and have wished 
sometimes, while travelling among the thick brakes, 
to drop as one of them into everlasting oblivion." 

Occasionally, when weary, he lies on his straw and 
pours forth his feelings in rhyme : 

" Come, death, shake hands ; I 11 kiss thy bands : 
Tis happiness for me to die. 
What ! dost thou think that I will shrink ? 
I 11 go to immortality." 


As an instance and evidence of the extreme 
sensitiveness of this man, we find that in his lonely 
and friendless condition he was again worrying him 
self about the expulsion from college. He set down 
in writing a most humble retractation and confession, 
and prayed the rector and authorities of the college 
to give him his degree, but, as we have seen, they 
were inexorable, and left the sting to rankle in his 

We have no evidence that Brainerd had any special 
gift of tongues, and from his own observations, noted 
down from time to time, it would appear that he had 
to labour very diligently to master the language of 
the North American Indians. The complex charac 
ter of the language may be imagined when we find 
our English word " question " in the Iroquis is 
" kremmogkodonaltootiteavreganumeouash." Another 
missionary who was labouring among the Indians 
at Stockbridge was his chief helper in this difficulty, 
and to visit this Mr. Sergeant for instruction he had 
to constantly ride on horseback through the wild, 
dark forests, twenty miles from place to place, and 
this too in the depth of winter. Thus it will be seen 
that this pursuit of knowledge was under real diffi 
culties, especially when it is remembered that he was 
a delicate, ailing man, a fervent spirit urging on a 
feeble, aching frame. 

For a whole year he worked on at Kaunaumeck, 
sharing the life and hardships of the Indians, preach 
ing to them faithfully the Gospel of Jesus Christ, but 
with small success. He felt that his ministry was not 
the power it ought to be, and therefore he persuaded 
the Indians to emigrate from that place to Stock- 
bridge, where his friend Mr. Sergeant could more 
acceptably work amongst them. As soon as this 
plan had been carried out, Brainerd hastened to New 
Jersey, and finding the Commissioners of the Society 
at Elizabethtown, told them of his readiness to be 
sent to other Indians, where he might begin work 





again. They immediately responded to his request 
by sending him to the native encampments on the 
Forks of the Delaware, which was destined to be 
his future sphere. Before starting out afresh, how 
ever, he had several invitations to become the pastor 
of New England congregations, and especially did 
the people who had formed a church at East Hamp 
ton and Long Island beg that he would be their 
minister. To many a man in his position the sugges 
tion would have been a temptation not to be disre 
garded. He was in a wretched state of health and 
physically quite incapable of enduring the privations 
of Indian life, and East Hampton was then a charm 
ing settlement amid the finest scenery, and he 
would have had the grateful attention of a wealthy 
and devoted people. Then his first essay as a 
missionary to the Indians had not been altogether 
successful, even with the assistance of his friend Mr. 
Sergeant, at a comparatively near station, and if he 
went to the Forks of Delaware he would be quite 
isolated from his friends and kindred. It was a crisis 
in his life, and the position must for a time at least 
have been a difficult and painful choice with him. 
The only note he leaves us of the momentous decision 
is extremely brief. " Resolved to go on then with the 
Indians, if Divine providence permitted, although I 
had before felt some inclination to go to East Hamp 
ton, where I was educated to go." His mind, once 
made up, Brainerd lost no time in setting forth, 
disposed of his books, clothes, etc., and in the pouring 
rain began a long march through the wilderness. He 
had to ford the Hudson river, and to go nearly a 
hundred miles beyond through the woods, and at last 
on Saturday, the I2th of May, 1744, he reached a little 
settlement of Irish and Dutch people, twelve miles 
from the Forks of Delaware, where he would have to 
work. The journey had prostrated him, and more 
dead than alive he caught first sight of the wigwams 
of the Indians. This constant feeling of breaking up 


seems to have excited in Brainerd a thirst for winning 
souls ere the end should come. Henry Martyn, 
fragile and exhausted after dragging himself across 
Persian plains, is perhaps most like this young Puri 
tan missionary in his weakness of body and consum 
ing energy of soul. What infinite pathos there is in 
these brief records of his experiences at this time. 
He had enjoyed a brief sleep, and awoke on the 
Lord s Day amid his new surroundings. 

" Rose early, felt very poorly after my long journey, 
and after being wet and fatigued. Was very melan 
choly ; have scarce ever seen such a gloomy morning 
in my life, there appeared to be no Sabbath, and the 
children were all at play, I, a stranger in the wilder 
ness and knew not where to go, and all circumstances 
seemed to conspire to render my affairs dark and 
discouraging. Was disappointed respecting an inter 
preter, and heard that the Indians were much 
scattered, etc. Oh, I mourned after the presence of 
God, and seemed like a creature banished from His 
sight ! Yet He was pleased to support my sinking 
soul amidst all my sorrows, so that I never entertained 
any thought of quitting my business among the poor 
Indians, but was comforted to think that death 
would ere long set me free from these distresses." 

He became a little more encouraged, however, on 
finding the Indians so willing to listen to him, although 
some of their practices, especially funeral rites, which 
he was compelled to witness, greatly shocked him. 
In obedience to orders which reached him from the 
Society, Brainerd now journeyed to Newark, in New 
Jersey, where the Presbytery were waiting to ordain 
him. This solemn occasion much impressed him. 
He was utterly out of health, and after passing the 
examination underwent a sleepless night, but got 
through very well, and his probation sermon from the 
text, " Delivering thee from the people and from the 
Gentiles," etc., was very favourably received. His old 
friend, Rev. Mr. Pemberton, gave the ordination 


charge ; the principal listener was, he tells us, " com 
posed and solemn, without distraction, and I hope 
that then, as many times before, I gave myself up to 
God, to be for Him and not for another." 

The official statement written to the Society in 
Scotland declares, " We can, with pleasure, say that 
Mr. Brainerd passed through his ordination trial to 
the universal approbation of the Presbytery, and 
appeared uncommonly qualified for the work of the 
ministry. He seems to be armed with a great deal of 
self-denial, and animated with a noble zeal to propa 
gate the Gospel among those barbarous nations who 
have long dwelt in the darkness of heathenism." 

After his ordination Brainerd was eager to return 
to his work, but an attack of illness delayed his 
departure. This enforced leisure of a few days with 
his friends produced in his mind unmingled feelings 
of thankfulness and self-abasement. He had some 
sweet seasons of communion with his fellow-Christians, 
gaining, thereby, hope and encouragement for the task 
which lay before him. The kindness of his friends 
filled him with gratitude. " I wondered," he says, 
" that God should open the hearts of many to treat 
me with such kindness, and myself to be so unworthy 
of any favour from God or any of my fellow-men." 
His illness, undoubtedly had much to do with the 
constant melancholy which, like a cloud, overcast his 
life. He makes a note in his diary, that " I was 
much exercised with pain in my head ; however, 
I determined to set out on my journey towards 
Delaware in the afternoon, but when the afternoon 
came my pain increased exceedingly, so that I was 
obliged to betake myself to bed. The night following, 
I was greatly distressed with pain and sickness, was 
sometimes almost bereaved of the exercise of reason 
by the extremity of pain. Continued much distressed 
till Saturday, when I was somewhat relieved by an 
emetic, but was unable to walk about till the Monday 
following in the afternoon, and still remained very 


feeble. I often admired the goodness of God, that 
He did not suffer me to proceed on my journey from 
the place where I was so tenderly used and to be sick 
by the way amongst strangers. God is very gracious 
to me, both in health and sickness, and intermingles 
much mercy with all my afflictions and toils." 

The ever-present sense of his own sinfulness recalls 
an ancient sacred poem, with which this chapter shall 
fitly close. 

" If I could shut the gate against my thoughts, 

And keep out sorrow from this room within, 
Or memory could cancel all the notes 

Of my misdeeds, and I unthink my sin : 
How free, how clear, how clean, my soul should be, 
Discharged of such a loathsome company. 

" Or were there other rooms within my heart 

That did not to my conscience join so near, 
Where I might lodge the thoughts of sin apart, 

That I might not their clamorous crying hear, 
What peace, what joy, what ease should I possess, 
Free from the horrors that my soul oppress ! 

" But, O my Saviour, who my refuge art, 

Let Thy dear mercies stand twixt them and me, 

And be the wall to separate the heart 
So that I may at length repose me free ; 

That peace, and joy, and rest, may be within, 

And I remain divided from my sin." 



" I will not let Thee go, Thou Help in time of need ! 
Heap ill on ill, 
I trust Thee still. 

Even when it seems that Thou would st stay indeed ! 
Do as Thou wilt with me, 
I yet will cling to Thee. 

Hide Thou Thy face, yet, Help in time of need, 
I will not let Thee go ! "Desszler. 


\O the eye of reason," says Brainerd, "every 
thing that respects the conversion of the 
heathen is as dark as midnight." Such was 
his conclusion as he began his missionary 
campaign at the Forks of the Delaware. The grand 
purpose which had called him there filled his thoughts 
by day and his dreams by night ; his spirit was strait 
ened until the end of his coming was accomplished. 
Constantly he speaks of his " poor Indians," going to 



and fro among them preaching the glad tidings of a 
Saviour, and when all the woods were hushed in mid 
night gloom, his voice could be heard entreating the 
Lord to save their souls. He had so completely 
severed himself from the outside world, that its con 
cerns interested him no more ; one thought, one aim, 
one desire, burning as a sacred passion, strove in his 
soul. " I was much assisted in prayer," he tells us of 
one night, " for dear Christian friends, and for others 
that I apprehended to be Christless, but was more 
especially concerned for the poor heathen, and those 
of my own charge ; was enabled to be instant in 
prayer for them, and hoped that God would bow the 
heavens, and come down for their salvation." 

The difficulties in his way were great his inexperi 
ence with the language especially, as it was split up 
into so many dialects ; his poor, failing health, the 
spirit for ever outrunning the flesh ; and the ignorance 
of the Indians, rendered still more an obstacle by 
their familiarity with white men, who treated them 
with brutality, deceived them, and left an impression 
then, as now, that the God of the palefaces was no 
friend of the poor redskin. Grasping traders and 
unscrupulous colonists had so pushed the Indians 
into hostility that it was some time before Brainerd 
could win their confidence, and make them feel that, 
with a brother s yearning love, he sought not theirs 
but them. 

We see him busying himself to make them more 
comfortable in their settlements, travelling miles on 
horseback to negotiate with the white people for land, 
on which they might dwell in peace. 

One Saturday evening he had been spending some 
time, as was his custom, in the woods meditating, and 
examining his own heart, when, on his return to the 
encampment, he heard that on the morrow a great 
feast was to be held, with idolatrous practices. His 
mind was in anguish about it. " I thought that I 
must, in conscience, go and endeavour to break them 


up, and knew not how to attempt such a thing. 
However, I withdrew for prayer, hoping for strength 
from above." That night he spent in such an agony 
of supplication as can scarcely be described. When 
he rose from his knees, he could scarcely stand for 
very exhaustion, the perspiration stood on his fore 
head, he had cried to God until voice utterly failed, 
and Nature exhausted seemed, as he thought, to be 
giving way. Then came to him such a wonderful 
sense of confidence in God, and entire surrender to 
His will, as he never forgot to his dying day. He 
speaks of it as a season altogether " inexpressible." 
" All things here below vanished, and there appeared 
to be nothing of any considerable importance to me 
but holiness of heart and life, and the conversion of 
the heathen to God. All my cares, fears, and desires, 
which might be said to be of a worldly nature dis 
appeared, and were, in my esteem, of little more 
importance than a puff of wind. I exceedingly 
longed that God would get to Himself a name among 
the heathen, and I appealed to Him, with the greatest 
freedom, that He knew I preferred Him above my 
chief joy. Indeed, I had no notion of joy for this world, 
I care not where or how I lived, or what hardships I 
went through, so that I could but gain souls to Christ. 
I continued in this frame all the evening and all the 
night. When I was asleep I dreamt of these things, 
and when I waked (as I frequently did), the first 
thing I thought of was this great work of pleading for 
God against Satan." 

When the day dawned he hurried to the woods to 
pour out his soul again to God, and emerge into 
the open again, with " a strong hope that God would 
bear the burdens and come down and do some mar 
vellous work among the heathen." 

After three miles riding he reached the Indians, 
who were dancing wildly, and engaged in the frantic 
leapings and shoutings which is still one of the dis 
tinguishing and terrifying characteristics of their 


worship. Brainerd went right into the midst of them, 
and with the blessing of the Divine companionship 
clothing him with grace and power, he persuaded 
them to cease and break up their gathering, so far, 
indeed, succeeding, that the Indians, who were frolick 
ing about their medicine men, grouped themselves 
around the young Puritan, and listened with rapt atten 
tion to the Word of the Lord. Strange to say, after 
this remarkable answer to prayer, the preacher slowly 
wended his way home, disconsolate and buffeted by 
the insinuations of the evil one. " I was very weak 
and weary, and my soul borne down with perplexity, 
but was mortified to all the world, and was determined 
still to wait upon God for the conversion of the 
heathen, though the devil tempted me to the contrary." 

After this followed three weeks of illness, intense 
pain, in the midst of which he managed to crawl to 
his Indians to speak to them, but in truth he was sick 
and ready to die. He would sit amongst them, Bible 
in hand, pondering the Word of Life. Here we see 
the hero spirit in this faithful witness. Suffering made 
his work apostolic ; with scarcely an exception he 
shared the same trials of him who speaks of being 
" in journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of 
robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils 
by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the 
wilderness, in perils on the sea, in perils amongst false 
brethren, in weariness and painfulness, in watchings 
often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold 
and nakedness." 

At last he is so enfeebled that he cannot leave his 
hut, and the uncertainty of his mind begins to fill him 
with alarm. What infinite tenderness lies in these 
words which he scrawled upon paper as he lay there 
alone, save for his God. 

" I am obliged to let all my thoughts and concerns 
run at random, for I have neither strength to read, 
meditate or pray, and this naturally perplexes my 
mind. I seem to myself like a man that has all his 


estate embarked in one small boat, unhappily going 
adrift down a swift torrent. The poor man stands on 
the shore and looks, and laments his loss. But alas ! 
though my all seems to be adrift, and I stand and see 
it, I dare not lament, for this sinks my spirit more 
and aggravates my bodily disorders. I am forced, 
therefore, to divert myself with trifles, although at the 
same time I am afraid and often feel as if I was guilty 
of the mismanagement of time. And oftentimes my 
conscience is so exercised with the miserable way of 
spending time, that I have no peace, though I have no 
strength of mind or body to improve it to better pur 
pose, and hope that God will pity my distressed state ! " 
God did so, and Brainerd sets forth upon a mission 
ary journey of four hundred and twenty miles, and then 
after a few days rest, with recovered strength he goes 
forth to meet his friend Byram, who was to be his 
companion on an expedition to the Indians at Susque- 
hannah. This journey was adventurous and fraught 
witlfdanger. They travelled mile after mile through a 
wilderness which Brainerd calls " hideous and howl 
ing," then reaching a mountain range they had to find 
or make a track over their brows, and through the 
awful gorges and chasms at their feet. One dark 
night just where a precipice was near, Brainerd s 
horse trapped its leg between the rocks and threw its 
rider, fortunately without injury to him, but he had to 
kill the horse, as with her legs broken he knew there 
was no help for it in such a desert place. Here halt 
ing for a space they gathered a few bushes and made 
a fire, and then heaping up some slight shelter from 
the biting wind they committed themselves to their 
God, and fell asleep upon the turf. 

" Through the day Thy love hath spared us ; 
Wearied we lie down to rest, 

Through the silent watches guard us, 
Let no foe our peace molest, 

Jesus, Thou our guardian be, 

Sweet it is to trust in Thee. 


" Pilgrims here on earth, and strangers, 

Dwelling in the midst of foes, 
Us and ours preserve from dangers, 

In Thine arms may we repose, 
And when life s short day is past, 
Rest with Thee in heaven at last." 

Their reception by the Indian encampment was 
cordial and satisfactory. Brainerd courteously sa 
luted the king or chief, and forthwith preached to the 
large crowd of braves who, with their squaws, gathered 
round. The following day he preached again, and 
asked them to put off a grand hunting expedition, for 
which they were preparing, in order that he might 
continue for a few days more to instruct them in the 
truths of Christianity. This they consented to do, 
but he was a little astonished and "rather damped," as 
he says, to find some of the leading Indians entering 
into argument with him, and raising strong objections 
to Christianity. What these objections were is an 
interesting inquiry, and fortunately amongst the other 
valuable memoranda which Brainerd left behind him, 
is a statement of the difficulties which the Indian feels 
standing in the way of his accepting the Gospel. 

The first of these is a sorrowful fact, the objection 
which not only these poor Indians of a hundred and 
fifty years ago felt well-nigh insurmountable, but 
which, amongst the heathen and the civilised alike, 
is the difficulty to-day. The following words of 
Brainerd, sounding like a far-off appeal to Christians 
across the dim waste of years, is painfully, pitifully 
true, and needed in the mission world to-day. He 
tells us that these Indians have a rooted aversion to 
Christianity, and abhor even the Christian name. 
Why ? " This aversion to Christianity arises partly 
from a view of the immorality and vicious behaviour 
of many who are called Christians. They observe 
that horrid wickedness in nominal Christians, which 
the light of nature condemns in themselves, and not 
having distinguishing views of things, are ready to look 


upon all the white people alike for the abominable 
practices of some. Hence, when I have attempted to 
treat with them about Christianity, they have fre 
quently objected to the scandalous practices of 
Christians. They have observed to me that the 
white people lie, defraud, steal, and drink worse than 
the Indians ; that they have taught the Indians these 
things, especially the latter of them, who before the 
coming of the English knew of no such thing as strong 
drink ; that the English have by these means made 
them quarrel and kill one another, and in a word 
brought them to the practice of all those vices which 
now prevail amongst them. " 

Another objection to Christianity preferred by these 
Indians is still a difficulty in many fields of work 
to-day, that is the " fear of being enslaved." When 
Brainerd told these people that Christianity was for 
their good, they would remind him of their losses of 
land, of liberty ; that the white men were so strong, 
and had such means of killing them, that they were 
suspicious that the missionary had only been "sent 
out to draw them together under a pretence of kind 
ness to them, that they may have an opportunity to 
make slaves of them, as they do of the poor negroes, 
or else to ship them on board their vessels, and make 
them fight with their enemies, etc." They are very 
suspicious, not without reason too, of the friendship of 
the white man. " He never would," they said, with a 
cautious shake of the head, " take all these pains to do 
us good, he must have some wicked design to hurt us 
in some way or other." 

Brainerd enters very fully into another and more 
serious objection, "their strong attachment to their 
own religious notions (if they may be called religious), 
and the early prejudices they have imbibed in favour 
of their own frantic and ridiculous kind of worship." 
He was evidently not impressed very favourably with 
the practices of the native religion. He tells us that 
he finds a belief existing that all birds, beasts, and 


reptiles must be reverenced, because they are possessed 
with a Divine power to do good or evil to man 
kind, " whence such a creature becomes sacred to the 
persons to whom he is supposed to be the immediate 
author of good, and through him they must worship 
the invisible powers, though to others he is no more 
than another creature. And perhaps another animal 
is looked upon to be the immediate author of good to 
another, and consequently he must worship the invis 
ible powers in that animal. I have seen a Pagan 
burn fine tobacco for incense in order to appease 
the anger of that invisible power which he supposed 
presided over rattlesnakes, because one of these 
animals was killed by another Indian near his 
house." Before the coming of the English they had 
a belief in four deities, occupying the four corners of 
the earth, but when they saw the pale faces they 
reduced the number to three, one creating English, 
another Negroes, and the third themselves. They 
had peculiar notions about the future state, believing 
implicitly that the chichung (i.e., the shadow), or what 
survives death, goes southward to a place of perfect 
happiness and content. A curious circumstance was 
that these Indians held a notion that sins and offences 
were only as regards themselves, and it never occurred 
to them that they could fail of a happy hereafter from 
any want of religious observance or belief. "I re 
member," says Brainerd, "I once consulted a very 
ancient but intelligent Indian upon the point for my 
own satisfaction, and asked him whether the Indians 
of old times had supposed there was anything of the 
man that would survive the body. He replied, Yes. 
I asked him where they supposed its abode would be ? 
He replied, It would go southward. I asked him 
further whether it would be happy there? He 
answered, after a considerable pause, that the souls 
of good folks would be happy, and the souls of bad 
folks miserable. I then asked him who he called bad 
folks ? His answer (as I remember) was, Those who 


lie, steal, quarrel with their neighbours, are unkind to 
their friends, and especially to aged parents, and, in a 
word, such as are a plague to mankind/ " 

Akin to this loyalty to religious beliefs, is the 
immense influence of their pow-wows or magicians. 


This was the principal difficulty with which John 
Eliot had to contend a hundred years before, and this 
is the great difficulty even to-day. Brainerd tells some 
wonderful stories of the dreams and divinations of 
the Indian pow-wows. He makes short work, how- 



ever, of all their pretensions, calling it a mystery of 
iniquity, and altogether of Satan. One fact, however, 
he mentions is worthy of a brief record here, being 
the confession to him made by one of these pow 
wows after his conversion. He explained to the 
missionary how the spirit of divination came upon 
him. " He was admitted into the presence of a 
wonderful being, who loved, pitied, and desired to do 
him good. The interview took place in the upper 
heaven, this being was shining as the brightest day, 
and in him was reflected all the world. By his side 
stood his shadow or spirit (chichung\ lovely as the 
man himself, and after declaring who should be this 
Indian s mother, he was asked to choose what he should 
be in life. First to be a hunter, and afterwards a 
pow-wow was the reply. Whereupon the great man 
told him he should have what he desired, and that his 
shadow should go along with him down to earth and be 
with him for ever. There was, he says, all this time, 
no words spoken between them. The conference was 
not carried on by any human language, but they had 
a kind of mental intelligence of each other s thoughts, 
dispositions, and proposals. After this he says he 
saw the great man no more, but supposes he has 
come down to earth to be born, but the spirit or 
shadow of the great man still attended him, and ever 
after continued to appear to him in dreams and other 
ways, until he felt the power of God s Word upon his 
heart, since which it has entirely left him." 

These statements, selected from many more which 
Brainerd has preserved, will show the material with 
which he had to deal in preaching to the Indians. 
They also show that in times past as in times present, 
the human heart, both among the heathen and the 
civilised, is pre-occupied with false notions and 
bewildering speculations forming a barrier to the 
entrance of the Word. But then, as now, when the 
Gospel is faithfully preached and sincerely received, 
it is the power of God unto salvation freeing the soul 


from slavish superstitions, and clothing it with a robe 
of clear faith and sweet love. But to those who 
accepted Christ persecution followed, and the pow 
wows would dance before the young convert in a 
frenzy of threatening rage. 

The history of this devoted missionary is full of 
evidence of the power of Christianity to effect, as 
nothing else can, this radical change in human nature. 
No material could be perhaps more unpromising in 
many respects than these wild Indian tribes, who 
were addicted to many brutalities as well as the 
practice of most heathenish superstitions. While 
Brainerd was spending his night-watches in the lonely 
woods, he was in danger not only of wild beasts but 
of the almost wilder men who roamed abroad, exult 
ing in the trophies of scalped victims, and ready for 
any act of savagery in their thirst for blood. Unto 
such as these the missionary poured out the message 
of his soul, denouncing without fear the blind idolatry 
of their festivities, and preaching to them an undiluted 
Gospel which counted them as all under sin and con 
demnation. We have seen from his own testimony 
how this made the medicine men his enemies ; the 
hope of their gains was gone, their hold upon the 
superstitious Indians was relaxed as the light of 
Christ s Gospel dawned in the hearts of the people. 
But undaunted Brainerd went on, strong in a sense 
of being where duty called him, stronger still and more 
assured in the knowledge that God stood by him and 
would not desert His witness in the face of the foe. 

" With force of arms we nothing can, 

Full soon were we downridden ; 
But for us fights the proper Man, 
Whom God Himself hath bidden. 
Ask ye who is this same ? 
Christ Jesus is His name, 
The Lord Sabaoth s Son ; 
He and no other one 
Shall conquer in the battle." Luther 



" Lone watcher on the mountain height 1 

It is right precious to behold 
The first long surf of climbing light 

Flood all the thirsty east with gold ; 
But we who in the shadow sit, 

Know also when the day is nigh, 
Seeing thy shining forehead lit 

With His inspiring prophecy." Lowell. 

THERE are two ways of finding happiness, it is 
said, either by trying to get all that we want, 
or by reducing our wants to the very smallest 
compass. Socrates, looking in the Athenian 
shop-window was twitted by an observer as forgetting 
his philosophy in coveting the gold and silver which 
he saw. But he said it was not so, he was just feeling 
thankful that there were so many things which he 


could do without. And it is quite true of everything, 
that the more we have the more we want, whether of 
happiness, money, or righteousness. 

David Brainerd was a Christian philosopher, and 
he tried, and not unsuccessfully, to endure hardness 
as a good soldier, and not cumber himself with too 
many wants, as regards this world. As we have 
already seen, when he began his ministry among the 
Indians he made a clean sweep of all those desires 
and attractions, which might otherwise bind him to a 
civilised community. He felt that if he meant to 
catch fish he must stand in the stream, and if he 
wished to win these poor Indians for Christ he must 
dwell amongst them as much as possible, as one of 
themselves. Of course, in those days, New England 
life had not the abundant comforts or luxuries to 
which a missionary has to say farewell in our times, 
but the sweet simplicity and severe regularity of those 
Puritan homesteads had much to hold the heart of a 
man of Brainerd s mould. Henceforth, however, the 
wilderness must be his home, and instead of the 
meeting-house, the shadowy woods and dark ravines 
the places where he meets his God. In these soli 
tudes he had high and inspiring communion, and 
amidst many hardships and perils he was able to 
rejoice in the compensation of the peace which 
passeth all understanding. He tells us his mind, 
under these trials, after a terribly arduous ride home 
one night in one of his missionary journeys : 

" About six at night," says he, " I lost my way 
in the wilderness, and wandered over rocks and 
mountains, down hideous steeps, through swamps and 
most dreadful and dangerous places, and the night 
being dark, so that few stars could be seen, I was 
greatly exposed. I was much pinched with cold, 
and distressed with an extreme pain in my head, 
attended with sickness at my stomach, so that every 
step I took was distressing to me. I had little hope 
for several hours together but that I must lie out in 


the woods all night in this distressed case. But about 
nine o clock I found a house, through the abundant 
goodness of God, and was kindly entertained. Thus 
I have frequently been exposed, and sometimes lain 
out the whole night, but God has hitherto preserved 
me, and, blessed be His name, such fatigues and hard 
ships as these seem to wean me more from the earth, 
and I trust will make heaven the sweeter. Formerly, 
when I was thus exposed to cold, rain, etc., I was 
ready to please myself with the thoughts of enjoying 
a comfortable house, a warm fire, and other outward 
comforts, but now these have less place in my heart 
(through the grace of God) and my eye is more to 
God for comforts. In this world I expect tribulation, 
and it does not now, as formerly, appear strange to 
me. I do not in such seasons of difficulty flatter my 
self that it might be better hereafter, but rather think 
how much worse it might be, how much greater trials 
others of God s children have endured, and how much 
greater are yet reserved for me. Blessed be God 
that He makes the thoughts of my journey s end and 
of my dissolution a great comfort to me under my 
sharpest trials, and scarce ever lets these thoughts be 
attended with terror or melancholy, but they are 
attended frequently with great joy." 

Thus had Brainerd found the secret of happiness, 
not in gratifying every craving of his heart, or by 
extinguishing those desires, but by glorying in tribu 
lation, and thinking more of the mercy of God than 
of his own sufferings. 

Of this man it may be truly said he died daily, 
death constantly seemed to stare him in the face, and 
meet him at every turn of the way. So often sorely 
stricken with sickness, he was always urging himself 
on to do more, and do it quickly lest it should be too 
late. " I long to do much in a little time," he 
says, "and, if it might be the Lord s will, to finish my 
work speedily in this tiresome world. I am sure I do 
not desire to live for anything in this world, and 


through grace I am not afraid to look the King of 
Terrors in the face. . 

He found it still necessary to use an interpreter, as 
his command of the language was not sufficient, and 
with this man, whom he had baptised after profession 
of the Christian faith, Brainerd set out in May, 1745, 
for Susquehannah. Their journey was most unpro- 
pitious, the country bleak and shelterless, and in the 
night time being visited by awful storms of rain and 
thunder. They could find no place of cover, and the 
sheets of water which descended made it impossible 
to light a fire, and to add to their troubles, their 
horses had eaten a poisonous plant, which rendered 
them good for nothing. However they kept on their 
way on foot, leading their animals, and at last finding 
a little Indian hut of bark, they were thankful to rest 
there. This missionary tour covered over a hundred 
miles, along the banks of the river ; meeting with 
seven or eight distinct tribes of Indians, and in 
preaching to them he discerned how hostile they were 
towards Christianity. A few he found, however, will 
ing to learn, and these he carefully instructed in the 
Word of God, and was much encouraged on finding 
some of the Indians who had been with him at 
Kaunaumeck recognising him with great gladness. 
Afterwards he seems to have had much freedom in 
speaking to the people, although as usual his physical 
health was in a lamentable state. It was with diffi 
culty that he managed to return to his quarters at 
the Forks of Delaware, having traversed three hundred 
and forty miles. Brainerd frequently spoke of the 
difficulties with which he had to contend in his work 
by reason of the Indian settlements lying so far apart. 
During the space of three years he had to build for 
himself a house in three different and far distant 
localities viz., Kaunaumeck, the Forks of Delaware, 
and Crossweeksung, and he had to pass between these 
places constantly. He says that they needed his con 
stant attention, for the oldest of them was but as a 


child in his dependence upon the missionary for 
advice and stimulus to action. He knew these people 
and studied their character very closely, and has set 
down his impressions very clearly and in a manner 
full of interest. The question of the Indians, and 
what will be done with them, is and will be a very 
strong point with the people of America. Although 
the Indian is rapidly disappearing, the world will not 
soon forget him, and the opinions which Brainerd 
formed all those years ago is well worth preserving. 

"The Indians are a poor and indigent people, and 
so destitute of the comforts of life, at some seasons of 
the year especially, that it is impossible for a person, 
who has any pity for them, to refrain from giving 
assistance (as, in some cases, it is peculiarly necessary), 
in order to remove their pagan jealousy, and engage 
their friendship to Christianity. And while they 
retain their pagan tempers, they discern little grati 
tude amidst all the kindnesses they receive. If they 
make any presents, they expect double satisfaction. 
And Christianity itself does not at once cure them 
of these ungrateful tempers. 

" They have been bred up in idleness, and know 
little about cultivating land, or indeed, of engaging 
vigorously in any other business. So that I am 
obliged to instruct them in, as well as press them 
to, the performance of their work, and to be the 
oversight of all their secular business. They have 
little or no ambition or resolution. Not one in a 
thousand of them has the spirit of a man. And it is 
next to impossible to make them sensible of the duty 
and importance of being active, diligent, and industri 
ous in the management of their worldly business, and 
to excite in them any spirit of promptitude of that 
nature. When I have laboured to the utmost of my 
ability to show them of what importance it would be 
to the Christian interest among them, as well as to 
their worldly comfort, for them to be laborious and 
prudent in their business, and to furnish themselves 


with the comforts of life, how this would incline the 
pagans to come among them, and so put them under 
the means of salvation ; how it would encourage 
religious persons of the white people to help them, as 
well as stop the mouths of others that were disposed 
to cavil against them ; how they might, by this 
means, pay others their just dues, and so prevent 
trouble from coming upon themselves and reproach 
upon their Christian profession ; they have, indeed, 
assented to all I said, but been little moved, and, con 
sequently, have acted like themselves, or, at least, too 
much so, though it must be acknowledged that those 
who appear to have a sense of Divine things are con 
siderably amended in this respect, and it is to be 
hoped that time will make a yet greater alleviation 
upon them for the better. 

" The concern I have had for the settling of these 
Indians in New Jersey in a compact form, in order to 
their being a Christian congregation, in the capacity 
of enjoying the means of grace, the care of managing 
their worldly business in order to this end, and to 
their having a comfortable livelihood, has been more 
pressing to my mind, and cost me more labour and 
fatigue for several months past, than all my other 
work among them. 

" Their wandering to and fro, in order to procure 
the necessaries of life, is another difficulty that attends 
my work. This has often deprived me of opportuni 
ties to discourse with them, and it has thrown them 
in the way of temptation, either among pagans fur 
ther remote, where they have gone to hunt, who have 
laughed at them for hearkening to Christianity, or 
among white people, more horribly wicked, who have 
often made them drunk, and then got their commodi 
ties such as skins, baskets, brooms, shovels, and the 
like, with which they designed to have bought corn 
and other necessaries of life, for themselves and fami 
lies for it may be nothing but a little strong liquor, 
and then sent them home empty. So that for the 


labour, perhaps, of several weeks, they have got noth 
ing but the satisfaction of being drunken men, and 
have not only lost their labour, but, which is infinitely 
worse, the impressions of some Divine subjects that 
were made upon their minds before." 

It will be noticed, in the foregoing, that strong 
drink, that curse of all the nations, had already begun 
to produce its fatal results upon the poor Indians. 
Perhaps there is no more conspicuous example to be 
found in the history of any people, of the swift degra 
dation of a race, through drink, than in the case of 
the North American Indians. The fine qualities of 
these people, their dignity and hardihood, have 
rapidly disappeared by the desolating contact with 
what is miscalled civilisation. Since Brainerd s day 
they have lost their land wholesale, and are fast dying 
out in poverty, drink, and despair. What drink has 
begun, the bullet is rapidly completing, and the 
Indians, among whose forefathers Brainerd laboured, 
and about whose life all New England poets have 
sung, will soon be a forgotten people. 

Brainerd tells us at this time (July, 1745), about the 
conversion of his interpreter, a native who had been 
with him for some time. He and his wife were the 
first Indians baptised by him. This man s spiritual 
history, as presented in Brainerd s journal, is very 
interesting. At one time a hard drinker, he seems to 
have undergone a moral reformation after he entered 
the service of the missionary, and even showed a desire 
to do all he could to persuade the Indians to give up 
their idolatries and accept Christianity. But as 
regards his own soul, he seemed to give the message 
no heed. One day, however, Brainerd had been preach 
ing with very great power, and his interpreter who 
was assisting him was much impressed. After a 
time this wore off, but returned again with extra 
ordinary intensity. Like his master he began to agonise 
about his spiritual state, sleep departed from him, and 
his fellow Indians noticed him as, with the deepest 


concern, he walked to and fro among them, crying 
" What should I do to be saved ? " He told Brainerd 
that before him there rose a high mountain up which 
he was bound to ascend, but when he essayed to do 
this " his way was hedged up with thorns that he 
could not stir an inch farther." Vainly he strove, the 
more he laboured to climb the mountain the more he 
grew exhausted and despairing, so that he said, " it 
signified just nothing at all for me to strive and struggle 
any longer." The gloom upon him was deep, and look 
ing back upon his life he lamented that while he had 
not been such a sinner as some Indians, " he had never 
done one good thing." At the same time he saw 
clearly that others about were in the same peril and 
difficulty, and in their present condition quite unable 
to save themselves. Thus in his trouble of heart he 
almost gave himself up for lost, when he said it was 
as if an audible voice spoke to him, " There is hope ; 
there is hope ! " And one day this hope passed into a 
happy possession, for he was filled with peace through 
believing in Jesus Christ, then he was able to go 
amongst the Indians with a zealous regard for their 
salvation, and the temptation of strong drink, "in 
divers places where it was moving free as water," 
was no allurement to him. Brainerd after describing 
this man s happy state, says of him, " Upon a new and 
strict observation of his serious and savoury conversa 
tion, his Christian temper and unblemished behaviour 
for a considerable time, as well as his experience I 
have given account of, I think that I have good 
reason to hope that he is created anew in Christ 
Jesus to good works. His name is Moses Tinda 
Tantamy, he is about fifty years of age, and is pretty 
well acquainted with the pagan notions and customs 
of his countrymen, and so is the better able now to 
expose them. He has, I am persuaded, already been 
and I trust will yet be a blessing to the other 

Success at last began to cheer the heart of the 


missionary who had worked so hard without seeing 
much perceptible fruit. At the request of the Society 
he made the Indian town of Crossweeksung, in New 
Jersey, his station, and from there he constantly 
journeyed to the various Indian tribes scattered 
abroad. The power of the Holy Ghost was upon him, 
and as he preached the Indians were impressed in a 
wonderful manner. The changed demeanour of his 
hearers made a striking difference on his spirits, he no 
longer constantly yearns for death, but says that he " is 
willing to live, and in some respects desirous of it, that 
I might do something for the dear Kingdom of Jesus 
Christ." The penitence of these poor Indians greatly 
affected him, he could not look upon them lamenting 
their sins and praying for mercy, with dry eyes. 
When they gathered for their evening meal in the 
wigwam they would wait until he came to bless 
the food ; and once when he was in a place preaching, 
he noticed several weeping together, who came after 
wards with the question of the Philippian jailor, and 
received the apostolic reply and guidance. Upon 
his heart had been the burden, and in those 
midnight meetings with the Almighty, when no eye 
saw and no ear heard the strivings of the saint 
for the sinner s good, his cry had been, " I will 
not let Thee go." Prayer offered thus was a prevail 
ing power with God, and He who will be enquired of, 
hearkened unto His suppliant s deske. Light was 
breaking in the backwoods, and a presence, far more 
wonderful than the great Spirit whom they had 
ignorantly worshipped, was manifested in the hearts 
of these heathen. How often in the solitude of the 
night had Brainerd striven in prayer for these souls 
so precious to God. " My soul, my very soul, longed 
for the ingathering of the poor heathen, and I cried 
to God for them most willingly and heartily ; I could 
not but cry." The tarrying may be long, but it is 
only tarrying ; the worker may toil, the disciple yearn 
in love, the sower sow in tears, but the time of the 


singing of birds must come, and the sunshine of God s 
favour brings joyously His kingdom in the hearts of 

" Soul, then know thy full salvation ; 

Rise o er sin and fear and care ; 
Joy to find in every station 

Something still to do or bear. 
Think what spirit dwells within thee ; 

Think what Father s smiles are thine ; 
Think what Jesus did to win thee ; 

Child of heaven, canst thou repine ? 

" Haste thee on from grace to glory, 

Armed by faith, and winged by prayer, 
Heaven s eternal days before thee ; 

God s own hand shall guide thee there. 
Soon shall close thine earthly mission ; 

Soon shall pass thy pilgrim days ; 
Hope shall change to foil fruition, 
Faith to sight, and prayer to praise." 




" My prayer hath power with God ; the grace 

Unspeakable I now receive : 
Through faith, I see Thee face to face, 

I see Thee face to face and live ; 
In vain, I have not wept and strove; 
Thy nature and Thy name is Love." Wesley. 

angel has seemed of late to trouble the 
waters," said Brainerd in the month of 
\^ August, 1745, and the time had come when 
the multitude of his poor sin-stricken Indians 
should hasten down the steps of repentance to find 
restoration and salvation in the fountain open for 
sin and uncleanness. At last, the burden of so many 
prayers of strong cryings after God in the darkness 
of the forest and of languishing longings for the souls 
of the benighted was answered abundantly, and the 
very windows of heaven opened to shower down the 
blessing of grace Divine. The servant had long to 
wait and, sometimes in the cloudy prospect of con 
tinued disappointment, Brainerd had felt need 


enough to pray for himself that his own faith fail 
not. " My rising hopes, respecting the conversion of 
the Indians," he says, " have been so often dashed, 
that my spirit is as it were broken and courage 
wasted, and I dare hardly hope." Not only so, his 
power in preaching sometimes showed a conscious 
droop, and perhaps because of the depression of his 
own heart, seeing so little fruit of his incessant 
labours, the liberty and zeal of his utterances flagged. 
Here we see how wonderfully God was educating 
him, and how in the right spirit he learnt the lesson 
of discipline. " It pleased God to leave me very dry 
and barren," he says in a note after preaching one 
day, " so I do not remember to have been so strait 
ened for a whole twelvemonth past. God is just, and 
He has made my soul acquiesce in His will in this 
regard. It is contrary to flesh and blood to be cut off 
from all freedom in a large auditory, where their 
expectations are much raised, but so it was with me, 
and God helped me to say A men to it * Good is the 
will of the Lord." 

Now, however, the cloud lifts and the heart compel 
ling light of the Spirit of the Lord scatters the darkness. 
The revival in Susquehannah will stand on record as 
one of the most remarkable events in the history of 
Christian enterprise. Suddenly upon the whole 
Indian population fell what Brainerd calls " a most 
surprising concern." From all parts, the people came 
streaming in, holding his bridle and crowding round 
his horse to catch a few words of instruction, standing 
in speechless interest to hear his preaching, and 
falling down in frantic distress of soul. He stood 
among them and talked about those wondrous words, 
" Herein is love," while the air was full of their cries 
for mercy. " Not three in forty," he says, " were 
unaffected in this manner." One of the striking 
features of this revival was the fact that the preaching 
to which they listened had nothing of the terrors of 
the law in it. Brainerd specially observes this, and 


is surprised to find the hearts of these Indians so 
melted by the story of the love of Jesus. He walks 
up to a group of men who are bitterly weeping, and 
asks them what they want God to do for them. 
They replied, " They wanted Christ should wipe their 
hearts quite clean, etc. Surprising were now the 
doings of the Lord, that I can say no less of this day 
and I need say no more of it than that the arm of 
the Lord was powerfully and marvellously revealed 
in it." The cry of those penitents is well expressed 
by one who himself had preached the Gospel to the 
Indians in Georgia : 

" O my God what must I do ? 
Thou alone the way canst show; 
Thou canst save me in this hour, 
I have neither will nor power; 
God, if over all Thou art, 
Greater than my sinful heart, 
All Thy power on me be shown, 
Take away the heart of stone." 

Here is a brief extract from Brainerd s journal, 
describing in his own words at the time, some of these 
extraordinary scenes of spiritual awakening : 

" In the afternoon I preached to the Indians, their 
number was now about sixty- five persons, men, women, 
and children. I discoursed from Luke xiv. 16-23, 
and was favoured with uncommon freedom in my 
discourse. There was much visible concern among 
them while I was discoursing publicly, but afterwards 
when I spoke to one and another more particularly, 
whom I perceived under much concern, the power of 
God seemed to descend upon the assembly like a 
rushing mighty wind/ and with an astonishing energy 
bore down all before it. 

" I stood amazed at the influence which seized the 
audience almost universally and could compare it to 
nothing more aptly than the irresistible force of a 
mighty torrent or swelling deluge, that with its 



insupportable weight and pressure bears down and 
sweeps before it whatever is in its way. Almost all 
persons of all ages were bowed down with concern 
together, and scarce one was able to withstand the 


shock of this surprising operation. Old men and 
women who had been drunken wretches for many 
years, and some little children, not more than six or 
seven years of age, appeared in distress for their souls, 
as well as persons of middle age. And it was 


apparent these children (some of them at least) were 
not merely frightened with seeing the general concern, 
but were made sensible of their danger, the badness 
of their hearts, and their misery without Christ, as 
some of them expressed it. The most stubborn hearts 
were now obliged to bow. A principal man among 
the Indians, who before was most secure and self- 
righteous, and thought his state good because he knew 
more than the generality of the Indians had formerly 
done, and who with a great degree of confidence the 
day before told me he had been a Christian more than 
ten years, was now brought under solemn concern for 
his soul and wept bitterly. Another man, advanced 
in years, who had been a murderer, a pow-wow (or 
conjuror), a notorious drunkard, was likewise brought 
now to cry for mercy with many tears, and to com 
plain much that he could be no more concerned when 
he saw his danger so very great. 

" They were almost universally praying and crying 
for mercy in every part of the house and many out of 
doors, and numbers could neither go nor stand. Their 
concern was so great, each one for himself, that none 
seemed to take any notice of those about them, but 
each praying freely for himself. And I am to think 
they were to their own apprehension as much retired 
as if they had been individually by themselves in the 
thickest desert, or believe rather that they thought 
nothing about any but themselves, and their own 
states and so here every one praying apart although 
all together. 

" It seemed to me there was now an exact fulfilment 
of that prophecy, Zech. xii. 10, n, 12, for there was 
now * a great mourning like the mourning of Hadad- 
rimmon/ and each seemed to mourn apart. We 
thought this had a near resemblance to the day of 
God s power mentioned, Josh. x. 14, for I must say 
I never saw any day like it in all respects ; it was a 
day wherein I am persuaded, the Lord did much to 
destroy the kingdoms of darkness among this people. 


" This concern in general was most rational and just, 
those who had been awakened any considerable time 
complained more especially of the badness of their 
hearts, and those newly awakened of the badness of 
their lives and actions past, and all were afraid of the 
anger of God, and of everlasting misery as the desert 
of their sins. Some of the white people who came 
out of curiosity to hear what this babbler would 
say* to the poor ignorant Indians were much 
awakened, and some appeared to be wounded with 
a view of their perishing state." 

The picture of these poor children of the woods 
stretching out hands of faith to the Saviour, and weep 
ing their way to forgiveness and peace, is full of spirit 
ual beauty and interest. As Brainerd tells us, there 
were some white men who stood at a distance, possibly 
to criticise, of whom a few at any rate " who came to 
scoff remained to pray." But others did as some do 
now, look on incredulously and with scarce concealed 
scorn at the sight of sinners finding salvation. They 
stand aside while as the great Master Himself said, 
" the publicans and the harlots " crowd into the king 
dom, and the heathen who aforetime were afar off 
are now brought nigh by the blood of Jesus. 

Human hearts in their bondage of misery and 
happy release by the atonement of Christ are still the 
same ; there is a wonderful similarity between the 
three thousand who were pricked in their heart 
on the day of Pentecost, the crying Indians in 
Susquehannah, and those who gladly receive the 
Word to-day. This is evidenced by the following 
extract from Brainerd s journal : 

"A young Indian woman who I believe never 
knew before she had a soul, nor ever thought of any 
such thing, hearing that there was something strange 
among the Indians, came, it seems, to see what was 
the matter. On her way to the Indians she called at 
my lodgings, and when I told her I designed presently 
to preach to the Indians, laughed and seemed to 


mock ; but went, however, to them. I had not pro 
ceeded far in my public discourse before she felt 
effectually that she had a soul, and before I had 
concluded my discourse, she was so convinced of her 
sin and misery and so distressed with concern for her 
soul s salvation, that she seemed like one pierced 
through with a dart, and cried out incessantly. She 
could neither go, nor stand, nor sit on her seat with 
out being held up. After public service was over she 
lay flat on the ground praying earnestly, and would 
take no notice of nor give any answer to any that 
spoke to her. I hearkened to know what she said, 
and perceived the burden of her prayer to be, 
Guttummaukalummeh weehaumeh Kineleh Ndahl 
that is * Have mercy on me and help me to give you 
my heart. And thus she continued praying inces 
santly for many hours together. This was, indeed, a 
surprising day of God s power, and seemed enough to 
convince an atheist of the truth, importance, and 
power of God s Word. 

" I spent almost the whole day with the Indians, 
the former part of it in discoursing to many of them 
privately, and especially to some who had lately 
received comfort, and endeavouring to inquire into 
the grounds of it as well as to give them some proper 
instructions, cautions, and directions. 

"In the afternoon I discoursed to them publicly. 
There were now present about seventy persons, old 
and young. I opened and applied the parable of the 
sower, Matthew xiii. I was enabled to discourse with 
much plainness, and found afterwards that this dis 
course was very instructive to them. There were 
many tears among them while I was discoursing 
publicly, but no considerable cry, yet some were 
much affected with a few words spoken from Matthew 
xi. 28, Come unto Me all ye that labour , etc., with 
which I concluded my discourse. But while I was 
discoursing near night to two or three of the unknown 
persons a Divine influence seemed to attend what was 


spoken to them in a peaceful manner, which caused 
the persons to cry out in anguish of soul although I 
spoke not a word of terror, but on the contrary set 
before them the fulness and all suffering of Christ s 
merits and His willingness to save all that came to 
Him, and therefore pressed them to come without 

" The cry of these was soon heard by others, who 
though scattered before, immediately gathered round. 
I then proceeded in the same strain of Gospel invita 
tion, till they were all melted into tears and cried 
except two or three, and seemed in the greatest 
distress to find and secure an interest in the great 
Redeemer; some who had but little more than a 
ruffle made in their passions the day before, seemed 
now to be deeply affected and wounded at heart, and 
the concern in general appeared to us as prevalent as 
it was on the day before. There was indeed a very 
great mourning among them, and yet every one 
seemed to mourn apart. For so great was their con 
cern that almost every one was praying and crying 
for himself, as if none had been near ; Guttummauka- 
lummeh, guttummaukalummehl that is, Have mercy 
upon me, have mercy upon me, was the common 

" It was very affecting to see the poor Indians, who 
the other day were hallooing and yelling in their 
idolatrous feasts and drunken frolics now crying to 
God with such importunity for an interest in His 
dear Son. I found two or three persons who I had 
reason to hope had taken comfort upon good grounds 
since the evening before, and these with others that 
had obtained comfort were together, and seemed to 
rejoice much that God was carrying on His work with 
such force upon others." 

Faith we know without works is dead, and the 
reality of this great spiritual stir among the Indians 
was proved by this thoroughness of their change of life. 
When they had received the inexpressible comfort of 


Christ s peace, these con verts asked Brainerd forinstruc- 
tion as to their mode of life, and were willing to do any 
thing which would conform their conduct to the princi 
ples of the Christian religion. Questions of morality, of 
honesty in trading, of kindness to children, and duty 
to wives and husbands, were discussed freely with a 
desire to know the way of God in these matters. One 
chief who had deserted his wife was ready now to 
return to her, and behave as a good and faithful 
husband, and this he publicly promised. She being 
also a Christian convert did likewise solemnly vow to 
be faithful and forgiving to him. Brainerd is not far 
wrong in estimating this action at its proper value 
when he says, " There appeared a clear demonstration 
of the power of God s Word upon their hearts. I 
suppose a few weeks before the whole world could 
not have persuaded this man to a compliance with 
Christian rules in this affair." 

Others seem to have caught the spirit of their 
teacher, and were so happy in their communion with 
God, that they cared not how soon the earthly house of 
this tabernacle be dissolved that they might be with 
Him for evermore. To them Brainerd explained the 
doctrine of the resurrection, and they evidently under 
stood the glorious hope which lights the Christian s 
grave with radiance from the other side. 

Another simple incident very strikingly portrays 
the effect of the tenderness which the heart felt now 
under the power of Christ. An Indian squaw, who 
had been converted in those days of blessing, was 
found one morning weeping very bitterly. She had 
spoken in anger to her child the evening before, and 
the thought of it had made her so grieved and sorry 
that until daylight she wept over her misdoing. The 
poor woman with her enlightened conscience had 
reached a point of sensitiveness to which perhaps 
many of the more privileged mothers of to-day have 
not by any means attained. 

As we have seen, these remarkable results of the 


work of Brainerd attracted the attention of hfs own 
countrymen, and he tells us on more than one occasion 
how his congregation was augmented by Presbyterians, 
Baptists, Quakers, etc. From these, however, he does 
not seem to have had much encouragement, and on 
one occasion makes a note of " There being a multi 
tude of white people present, I made an address to 
them at the close of my discourse to the Indians, but 
could not so much as keep them orderly, for scores of 
them kept walking and gazing about, and behaved 
more indecently than any Indians I ever addressed, 
and a view of their abusive conduct so sunk my spirits 
that I could scarce go on with my work." 

But the love of his own people warmed his heart ; 
and those for whose sake he had given up everything 
dear in life now clustered round the pale, young, 
missionary with gratitude and attachment. The sight 
of whole tribes of Indians hungering and thirsting 
after the righteousness which is in Christ Jesus, gave 
him comfort and joy beyond all expression, and com 
pensated him for the weary waiting, the sufferings, 
bodily and mentally, the exposure, privations, and 
lonely distress he had endured, for at last he saw the 
work of the Lord prospering in his hands. 

" There are no words like these words ; how blessed they be ! 
How calming when Jesus says, Come unto Me. 
O hear them, my heart, they were spoken to me, 
And still they are calling thee Come unto Me. 

" I will walk through the world with these words on my heart ; 
Through sorrow or sin they shall never depart ; 
And when dying I hope He will whisper to me, 
* I have loved thee, and saved thee, come, sinner, to Me. 3 " 

Paxton Hood. 



" Before the Saviour s face 

The ransom d nations bow, 
O erwhelm d at His Almighty grace 

For ever now ; 
He shows His prints of Love, 

They kindle to a flame, 
And sound through all the worlds above 

The slaughter 7 d Lamb ! "Olivers. 

IN the presence of a large assemblage of Indians, 
including some white men whose curiosity had 
brought them thither, Brainerd baptised a num 
ber of native converts, and by this rite received 
them after public profession into the Christian Church. 
After the spectators had gone he called these believers 
to him and gave them suitable counsels as to their 
future conduct, and pointed out to them how neces 
sary it would be for them to be watchful in view of 
their responsibility before God. The little group 
appear to have been much softened by this address, 


and as the speaker proceeded they took hold of each 
other s hands as a sign of the new covenant of 
Christian brotherhood into which they had now 

The affection of these people towards their friend 
and pastor was very significant. Feeling it to be his 
duty to go on a visit to some other Indians at a 
distance, Brainerd asked them not only to excuse 
him for the sake of others, but to pray earnestly that 
his words might be blessed with success. They 
cheerfully assented and spent the whole night in 
prayer, ceasing not until they went out and saw the 
morning star in the sky. His interpreter was one 
of this praying band, and he spoke of the time as a 
season of much spiritual profit. On that same day 
an old Indian, who had been an idolater, and one who 
practised many cruel rites, came to Brainerd, and gave 
up voluntarily his rattles, which are a kind of musical 
instrument used in the festivals and dances, and these 
being handed over to the Christian natives were 
speedily destroyed. With great simplicity these 
people, although in the enjoyment of a sense of God s 
favour, were frequently filled with intense sorrow at 
the sight of their own unworthiness. 

" I asked one of them," says Brainerd, " who had 
obtained comfort and given hopeful evidences of 
being truly religious, why he now cried ? He replied, 
When he thought how Christ was slain like a lamb, 
and spilt His blood for sinners, he could not help 
crying when he was all alone, and thereupon burst 
out into tears and cried again. I then asked his wife 
who had likewise been abundantly comforted where 
fore she cried ? She answered, She was grieved that 
the Indians here would not come to Christ as well as 
those at Crossweeksung. I asked her if she found a 
heart to pray for them, and whether Christ had 
seemed to be near to her of late in prayer as in time 
past (which is my usual method of expressing a 
sense of the Divine presence). She replied, Yes, He 


had been near to her, and that at some times when she 
had been praying alone, her heart loved to pray so, 
that she could not bear to leave the place, but wanted 
to stay and pray longer/ " 

In the midst of these precious encouragements 
there was of course vouchsafed to Brainerd and his 
converts the grievous trouble of persecution and 
scoffing. Some idolatrous Indians who had come 
from a distance continually mocked these penitents 
and gibed at their tears ; these also persistently 
refused to hear the missionary preach. He visited 
the king of the Delaware Indians, receiving promise 
of an open door to the work of the Gospel and also 
gathered the chiefs together for conversation, that 
is when they were sober, for we are told that they 
were drunk with the white man s fire-water day after 
day. His experiences among. the Indians at Invocanta 
Islands cannot be better told than in his own words : 

" I visited the Indianv again at Invocanta Islands 
and found them almost universally very busy in 
making preparations for a great sacrifice and dance. 
I had no opportunity to get them together in order 
to discourse with them about Christianity by reason of 
their being so much engaged about their sacrifice, 
My spirits were much sunk with the prospect so very 
discouraging and especially seeing I had now no 
interpreter but a pagan who was as much attached to 
idolatry as any of them (my own interpreter having 
left me the day before, being obliged to attend upon 
some important business, and knowing that he could 
neither speak nor understand the language of these 
Indians) so that I was under the greatest disadvan 
tages imaginable. However, I attempted to discourse 
privately with some of them, but without any appear 
ance of success, notwithstanding I still tarried with 

" In the evening they met together, near a hundred of 
them, and danced round a large fire, having prepared 
ten fat deer for the sacrifice, the fat of whose 


inwards they burned in the fire while they were 
dancing, and sometimes raised the flame to a prodig 
ious height, at the same time yelling and shouting in 
such a manner that they might easily have been heard 
two miles or more. They continued their sacred 
dance all night near the altar; after which they 
ate the flesh of the sacrifice, and so retired each one 
to his lodging. 

" I enjoyed little satisfaction this night, being entirely 
alone on the island (as to any Christian company) 
and in the midst of this idolatrous revel, and having 
walked to and fro till body and mind were pained and 
much oppressed, I at length crept into a little crib 
made for corn and there slept on the poles. 

"Lords Day, 2ist September, 1745. I spent the 
day with the Indians on the island. As soon as they 
were well up in the morning I attempted to instruct 
them, and laboured for that purpose to get them 
together, but quickly found they had something else 
to do, for near noon they gathered together all their 
pow-wows (or conjurors) and set about half-a-dozen of 
them to playing their juggling tricks and acting their 
frantic, distracted postures, in order to find out why 
they were then so sickly upon the island, numbers 
of them being at that time disordered by a fever and 
bloody flux. In this exercise they were engaged 
for several hours making all the wild, ridiculous and 
distracted motions imaginable, sometimes singing, 
sometimes howling, sometimes extending their hands 
to the utmost stretch, spreading all their fingers, and 
they seemed to push with them as if they designed 
to fright something away, or at least keep it off at 
arm s end, sometimes stroking their faces with their 
hands, then spouting water as fine as mist ; sometimes 
sitting flat on the earth, then bowing down their 
faces to the ground, wringing their sides as if in pain 
and anguish, twisting their faces, turning up their 
eyes, grunting, puffing, etc. 

"Their monotonous actions tended to excite ideas of 


horror, and seemed to have something in them, as 
I thought, peculiarly suited to raise the devil, if he 
could be raised by anything odd, ridiculous, or fright 
ful. Some of them I could observe were much more 
fervent and devout in the business than others, and 
seemed to chant, peep, and mutter, with a good degree 
of warmth and vigour, as if determined to awake and 
engage the powers below. I sat at a small distance, 
not more than thirty feet from them (though undis 
covered), with my Bible in my hand, resolving, if 
possible, to spoil their sport, and prevent them receiv 
ing any answers from the infernal world, and there 
viewed the whole scene. They continued their hideous 
charms and incantations for more than three hours, 
until they had all wearied themselves ; and although 
they had in that space of time taken sundry intervals 
of rest, at length broke up, I apprehend without 
receiving any answer at all. 

" After they had done pow-wowing, I attempted to 
discuss with them about Christianity, but they soon 
scattered, and gave me no opportunity for anything 
of that nature. A view of these things, while I was 
entirely alone in the wilderness, destitute of the 
society of any one that so much as named the name 
of Christ/ greatly sunk my spirits, gave me the most 
gloomy turn of mind imaginable, almost stripping rne 
of all resolution and hope respecting further attempts 
for propagating the Gospel and converting these 
pagans, and rendered this the most burdensome and 
disagreeable Sabbath that ever I saw. But nothing 
I can truly say sunk and distressed me like the loss 
of my hope respecting their conversion. This concern 
appeared so great, and seemed to be so much my own, 
that I seemed to have nothing to do on earth if this 
failed. A prospect of the greatest success in the 
saving conversion of souls under Gospel-light, would 
have done little or nothing towards compensating for 
the loss of my hope in this respect ; and my spirits 
now were so damped and depressed, that I had no 



heart nor power to make any further attempts among 
them for that purpose, and could not possibly recover 
my hope, resolution, and courage, by the utmost of 
my endeavours." 

These Indians, amongst whom he was then visiting, 
were very different from those he had left behind, and 
their customs as well as their language proved this. 
They never buried their dead, but allowed them to 
decay in cribs, above ground, then after a time they 
would take the bones and carefully wash them, and 
bury them in the usual manner. During his wander 
ings among these people, he met with a remarkable 
priest or reformer, who had been all his life endeavour 
ing to restore the ancient religion of the Indians. He 
met Brainerd, dressed in full pontificals of bearskins, 
and a great mask of wood, one-half painted black and 
the other brown, with a most hideous mouth drawn 
awry. He danced, clashing his rattle of tortoise-shell, 
but never allowed any part of his body, not even his 
fingers, to be seen. He was evidently very devout, 
and much above the ordinary intelligence of these 
Indians, and invited Brainerd to come into his house 
or temple to discuss Christianity. He lamented freely 
the degenerate condition of the Indians, and said that 
their ignorance and wickedness so troubled him some 
times, that he went to the woods and lived alone there 
for months. "At length," he said, "God comforted 
his heart, and showed him what he should do, and 
since then he has known God and tried to serve Him, 
and loved all men, be they who they would, so as he 
never did before." Brainerd thus concludes his 
account of the time spent with this earnest seeker 
after God : " It was manifest he had a set of religious 
notions that he had looked into for himself, and not 
taken for granted upon base traditions, and he relished 
or disrelished whatever was spoken of a religious 
nature, according as it either agreed or disagreed with 
his standard. And while I was discussing he would 
sometimes say, Now that I like, so God taught me 


so, and some of his sentiments seemed very just 
Yet he utterly denied the being of a devil, and 
declared there was no such creature known among the 
Indians of old times, whose religion he supposed he 
was attempting to revive. He likewise told me that 
departed souls all went southward, and that the 
difference between the good and bad was this, 
that the former were admitted into a beautiful town, 
with spiritual walls, or wails agreeable to the nature 
of souls, and that the latter would for ever hover near 
those walls and in vain attempt to get in. He seemed 
to be sincere, honest and conscientious in his own way 
and according to his own religious notions, which was 
more than I ever saw in any other pagan. I perceived 
he was looked upon and derided among most of the 
Indians as a precise zealot, that made a needless noise 
about religious matters ; but I must say there was 
something in his temper and disposition, that looked 
more like true religion than anything I ever observed 
amongst other heathens. 

" But, alas ! how deplorable is the state of the Indians 
upon this river ! The brief representation I have here 
given of their notions and manners is sufficient to 
show that they are led captive by Satan at his will, in 
the most quiescent manner, and methinks might like 
wise be sufficient to excite the compassion and engage 
the prayers of pious souls for these their fellow-men 
who sit in the regions of the shadow of death. 
Very significant is the remark Brainerd further makes 
upon the character and circumstances of these people. 
He has been speaking of the fruitlessness of his labour 
to convert them to Christianity, and seems to sorrow 
fully account for it in these words : 

" They live so near the white people that they are 
always in the way of strong liquor as well as the ill 
examples of nominal Christians, which render it so 
unspeakably difficult to treat with them about Christ 

Brainerd was glad to get back to Crossweeksung, 


and to meet with his beloved people once more; 
" To be with those" he said, " seemed like being 
banished from God and all His people ; to be with 
these, like being admitted into His family and to the 
enjoyment of His Divine presence." They received 
him with much rejoicing, and, after his first service 
among them, on his retiring, being weary with his 
journeyings, they continued in prayer for two hours 
by themselves. On another occasion, he gathered 
them together to partake with him of the Lord s 
Supper; a service of real communion with Christ 
and His people. 

One day, after he had been preaching to a large 
audience, an Indian woman, quite a stranger to him 
and who had heard his voice for the first time, came 
forward to ask for the prayers of the Christians 
on her behalf, and, when she was made happy in a 
sense of sins forgiven, she expressed anxiety to return 
at once to her home, forty miles distant, in order to 
take the good news of salvation to her husband, that 
he also might be a Christian. Thus the work pros 
pered, and the heart of the worker was abundantly 
cheered in his toil. Preaching became a joy to him, 
and the services which he held among the Indians 
his chief delight. The fears which had oppressed 
him as to their conversion, disappeared before this 
evident manifestation of the outpouring of the Spirit. 
Everywhere were signs of awakening, the squaws 
coming forward with their children to hear the good 
news of salvation, and old men who had been fore 
most in superstitious rites, asking with tears for 
forgiveness of their sin. 

"The Word of God," he says, "at this time, 
seemed to fall upon the assembly with a Divine 
power and influence, especially towards the close of 
my discourse, there was both a soul melting and 
bitter mourning in the audience. The dear Christians 
were refreshed and comforted convictions revived in 
others and sundry persons newly awakened who had 



never been with us before ; and so much of the 
Divine presence appeared in the assembly that it 
seemed that This was no other than the house of 
God and the gate of heaven. " 

" With joy, we now approve 

The truth of Jesu s love, 
God, the universal God, 

He, the door hath opened wide, 
Faith on heathens hath bestowed, 

Washed them in His bleeding side. 

** Purged from the stains of sin, 

By faith, they enter in ; 
Purchased and redeemed of old, 

Added to the chosen race, 
Now received into the fold, 

Heathens sing the Saviour s praise." 



" Not from a stock of ours, but Thine, 

Jesus Thy flock we feed. 
Thy unexhausted grace Divine 

Supplies their every need. 
But if we trust Thy providence, 

Thy power and will to save, 
We have the treasure to dispense, 

And shall for ever have ! " Charles Wesley. 

SUCH remarkable fruits of his ministry among the 
Indians naturally impressed Brainerd greatly, 
and with the carefulness of judgment which 
always characterised his way of looking at 
things, he was in no haste to immediately accept every 
conversion as a spiritual fact, to be the cause, perhaps, 
of lamenting and disappointment afterwards. In one 
case of a notorious drunkard he deferred the rite of 
baptism for several weeks, to prove the fruits of the 
Spirit, and he relates with great satisfaction that of all 



the adult Indians he had baptised, none afterwards 
failed to give him " comfortable grounds to hope that 
God had wrought a special work of grace in their 
hearts." He speaks very thankfully of forty-seven 
Indians at the Forks of the Delaware, " that through 
rich grace, none of them as yet have been left to dis 
grace their profession of Christianity, by any scandal 
ous or unbecoming behaviour." 

And now he sits down in his wigwam to review the 
work already done, and discern what special causes of 
thankfulness there were in the revival of true religion, 
which had just stirred the hearts of his Indians. This 
incident is of the deepest import, as showing the spirit 
of the man ; here in his journal, written at this time, he 
lays bare unreservedly his heart, and with the sincerest 
humility disclaims for himself any credit in the success 
which had been achieved. He tells us that just before 
his strength was almost spent, and so far from think 
ing that a measure of encouragement was near at 
hand, he was, in face of the apparent futility of his 
prayers and labours, beginning to question whether 
he had not toiled in vain. 

" I was ready to look upon myself as a burden to 
the honourable Society that employed and supported 
me in this mission, and began to entertain serious 
thoughts of giving up my mission, and almost resolved 
I would do so at the conclusion of the present year, if 
I had then no better prospect of special success in my 
work than I had hitherto had. I cannot say I enter 
tained these thoughts because I was weary of the 
labours and fatigues that necessarily attended my 
present business, or because I had right and freedom 
in my own mind to turn any other way, but purely 
through dejection of spirit, pressing discouragement, 
and an apprehension of its being unjust to spend 
money consecrated to religious uses, only to civilise 
the Indians, and bring them to an external profession 
of Christianity. This was all I could then see any 
prospect of being effected, while God seemed, as 


I thought, evidently to frown upon the design of their 
saving conversion, by withholding the convincing and 
renewing influences of His blessed Spirit from attend 
ing the means I had hitherto used with them to that 

This then was his mood, the cloudy and dark day 
of a spiritual depression, like the two disciples who, 
with the pathos of a disappointed faith, told the Lord, 
" and we trusted ; " so Brainerd had to sound the 
utmost depths of his weakness and inability until 
the manifestation of the power of God was spread 
before his eyes. " All hopes in human probabilities 
most evidently appeared to fail," he said, and his first 
act of gratitude is to praise God that in His mercy 
He thus ordained strength out of weakness, that the 
glory might not be the servant s but the Master s 

He marks how unaccountably, too, this concern 
seized the souls of these people. When he came 
first among them it was with difficulty he could get 
a single Indian man to come and hear the Gospel ; his 
first congregation consisted of four women and a few 
little children, and yet, in the space of a few weeks, 
the crowds began to gather, and the people flocked, 
as we have seen, from all parts to listen to his words. 
The cry, " What must I do to be saved ?" rang through 
every Indian settlement ; " their coming to the place 
of our public worship was like Saul and his messengers 
coming among the prophets ; they no sooner came 
than they prophesied." 

Brainerd, like many who have set about the Lord s 
business in earnest since, had to work against the 
prejudices of his own people. It is very wonderful 
how history repeats itself. And we find this faithful 
man of God the subject of the criticisms of the luke 
warm, and the denunciations of the evil-disposed. 
Perhaps these white men felt that their craft was 
in danger, and their business, not it may be of a very 
creditable sort, would be endangered by the conver- 


sion of the natives. Just as the Anglo-Indians of 
Calcutta depreciated Henry Marty n with scoffing 
and scorn, so Brainerd found people objecting to 
his earnest and straightforward preaching of the 
Gospel. "The Indians were well enough already," 
they said. " There was no need of all this noise about 
Christianity ; they would be in no better, no safer, 
or happier state than they were already ; " and so 
forth. This failing to impede the progress of Brainerd, 
they adopted bolder methods, outran him in the field, 
and told the Indians that he was a knave, a deceiver, 
daily teaching lies ; and that his design was " to 
gather together as large a body of them as he pos 
sibly could, and then sell them to England for slaves." 
They even plied them with strong drink that they 
might the better set them in savage prejudice against 
the young missionary. But against these opposers of 
the faith, its witness was armed by the might of Divine 
power, and exclaimed, on seeing how affectionately 
the Indians hurried to hear his word, " If God will 
work, who can hinder ? " 

Brainerd was not an expert linguist, and he very 
truly sets it down as an instance of the goodness of 
God that he was provided with a competent inter 
preter. For a time, certainly, this man, having no 
personal interest in the message he repeated, did not 
in any way express either the pathos or the power of 
the Gospel appeal, but after his conversion a wonder 
ful change came in this respect. " It pleased God," 
says Brainerd, " at this season to inspire his mind 
with longing desire for the conversion of the Indians, 
and to give him admirable zeal and fervency in 
addressing them in order thereto. And it is 
remarkable that when I was favoured with special 
assistance in any work and enabled to speak with 
more than common freedom, fervency and power, 
under a lively and affecting sense of Divine things, he 
was usually affected in the same manner almost 
instantly, and seemed at once quickened and enabled 



to speak in the same pathetic language and under the 
same influence as I did. And a surprising energy 
often accompanied the Word at such seasons, so that 
the faces of the whole assembly would be apparently 
changed almost in an instant, and tears and sobs 
become common among them." So that while 
Brainerd cannot claim, as he says, "any gift of 
tongues," he had the immense advantage of an 
interpreter who had the heart and understanding to 
communicate the doctrines of Christianity. 

Then, as now, there were in the minds of people 
strong prejudices against influencing the minds of the 
hearers by statements concerning the terrors of God s 
wrath and indignation against sinners. " But God has 
left no room," says Brainerd, " for this objection in the 
present case, this work of grace having been begun and 
carried on by almost one continued strain of Gospel 
invitation to perishing sinners." Not that he hesitated 
to place before them " the exceeding sinfulness of sin," 
and the consequences thereof if unrepented of. These 
old Puritans had a habit of calling a spade a spade, 
and believed in a real hell and a real devil just as truly 
as they proclaimed a real Christ and a real heaven. 
But still, to the disappointment of many carping 
lookers on, the extraordinary spiritual awakening of 
these Indians was clearly not due to any terrifying 
teaching. The remark Brainerd makes upon this is 
very true and frank. 

" This great awakening, this surprising concern was 
never excited by any harangues of terror, but always 
appeared most remarkable when I insisted upon the 
compassions of a dying Saviour, the plentiful provisions 
of the Gospels, and the free offers of Divine grace to 
needy distressed sinners. Nor would I be understood 
to insinuate that such religious concern might be 
justly suspected as not being genuine and from a 
Divine influence, because produced by the preaching 
of terror, for this is, perhaps, God s more usual way of 
awakening sinners, and appears entirely agreeable to 


Scripture and sound reason ; but what I meant here 
to observe is, that God saw fit to employ and bless 
milder means for the effectual awakening of these 
Indians, and thereby obviated the fore-mentioned 
objection, which the world might otherwise have had 
a more plausible colour of making." He notes the 
absence of undue excitement in the meetings, and, 
although many have trembled and some been stricken 
speechless under the power of the Word, there were 
no convulsions and bodily agonies which, at that time 
at least, were common to great religious revivals. 
There was a marked reality and thoroughness in 
these convictions of sin. 

Across the wide interval of a century and a-half we 
hear Brainerd thanking God that in his work the 
drink, " their darling vice," the sin that easily besets 
them, is losing its masterhood over the souls and 
bodies of the people by the progress of Christian 
principle. They began to pay their debts, to lay 
aside all censoriousness of manner, to live with each 
other in brotherly love, and, above all, to put on 
charity. "A conquest of sin by the working of the Holy 
Ghost, and the cultivation of those Christian graces 
which make up the character of the Scriptural Christ 
ian, these things they followed after with great joy. 
Their consolations did not incline them to lighten, but, 
on the contrary, were attended by solemnity, and often 
times with tears, and an apparent brokenness of heart. 
... In some respects some of them have been sur 
prised themselves, and have with concern observed to 
me, When their hearts have been glad (which is a 
phrase they commonly make use of to express spirit 
ual joy) they could not help crying for all. " 

Thus in this brief retrospect Brainerd finds place 
for abundant gratitude. Up to this point he had 
ridden over three thousand miles, and passed through 
hardships and trials of faith and patience, which are 
but faintly hinted at in his journal. He tells us how 
he had constantly to go away from his people in order 


to reach the towns where he might represent the work, 
and ask for it financial support. 

For a long time Brainerd felt that he must have 
another worker with him, but failed to meet with the 
man of his choice. He then again set his mind upon 
obtaining sufficient funds to build a school and get 
the children in. 

In one of these journeys he informs us that he 
reached a ferry just too late to cross on account of 
the tempestuous wind and waves, and had to spend 
the night in the ferry-house amid drinking people, 
who freely used the most profane language. He sat 
down and began to write in spite of the disturbances, 
and his mind was filled with calm, but he " thanked 
God that he was not likely to spend an eternity in 
such company." 

And now, possibly writing the very words under 
such untoward circumstances, he commits his thoughts 
to paper as to the work in which he was engaged. 

" As these poor pagans stood in need of having 
( line upon line and precept upon precept/ in order to 
their being instructed and grounded in the principles 
of Christianity, so I preached publicly, and taught 
from house to house almost every day for whole weeks 
together when I was with them. My public dis 
courses did not then make up one-half of my work, 
while there were so many constantly coming to me 
with that important inquiry, What must we do to 
be saved ? and opening to me the various exercises 
of their minds. And yet I can say (to the praise of 
rich grace) that the apparent success with which my 
labours were crowned has unspeakably more than com 
pensated for the labour itself, and was likewise a good 
means of supporting and carrying me through busi 
ness and fatigues which it seems my nature would 
have sunk under without such an encouraging pro 
spect. But although this success has afforded unalter- 
ing support, comfort and thankfulness, yet in this 
season I have found great need of assistance in my 


work, and have been much oppressed for want of one 
to bear a part of my labours and hardships. * May 
the Lord of the harvest send forth other labourers 
into this part of His harvest, that those who sit in 
darkness may see great light, and that the whole 
earth may be filled with the knowledge of Himself! " 

" O Lord of life and glory, 

Have we not ears to hear 
The sounds that rise before Thee, 

To mock Thy love and tears ? 
Do we not hear the crying 

For help from hearts and homes, 
And can we sit denying 

The help our Saviour owns ? 

" O Lord of life and glory, 

Our minds are at Thy feet, 
That we may grasp the meaning 

Of Calvary s wondrous feat. 
To nations now in slumber 

We have to take the light, 
Before the judgment thunder 
Shall end our war for right." 

Herbert Booth. 



" With force of arms we nothing can, 
Full soon were we down-ridden ; 
But for us fights the proper Man, 
Whom God Himself hath bidden. 
Ask ye, who is this same ? 
Christ Jesus is His name, 
The Lord Sabaoth s Son ; 
He and no other one 
Shall conquer in the battle." Luther. 

THE opening of the new year of grace one 
thousand seven hundred and forty - six 
brought to the heart of Brainerd much self- 
examination, and led him to consecrate him 
self afresh to God and His service. What he had 
done already began to tell upon him, and, while the 
happy manifestation of a blessing on his work had 
inspired him with new hope, it was only too evident 
to him that the end must soon come. Living as one 
whose span of life was speedily shortening, his mind 
was filled with solicitude for the souls of his Indians, 
and a desire to expend every remaining hour in labour 
for them. While many would have recognised in 



signs of physical break-up a sufficient reason for 
retiring from the field, Brainerd urged himself on to 
increasing effort. The toils of the past gave him little 
satisfaction ; he was always depreciating any thing he 
had done or suffered in the cause. " God has carried 
me through numerous trials and labours in the past," 
he writes in his diary. " He has amazingly supported 
my feeble frame, for having obtained help of God 
I continue to this day. O that I might live nearer to 
God this year than I did the last ! The business to 
which I have been called, and which I have been 
enabled to go through, I know has been as great as 
nature could bear up under, and what would have 
sunk and overcome me quite, without special support. 
But alas ! alas ! though I have done the labours and 
endured the trials, with what spirit have I done the 
one and borne the other ? How cold has been the 
frame of my heart oftentimes ! and how little have I 
sensibly eyed the glory of God in all my doings and 
sufferings ! I have found that I could have no peace 
without filling up all my time with labours, and thus 
necessity has been laid upon me. Yea, in that re 
spect, I have loved to labour, but the misery is, I could 
not sensibly labour for God as I could have done. 
May I, for the future, be enabled more sensibly to 
make the glory of God my all ! " 

Once again his enemies came about him, and 
Brainerd was in danger from those of his own nation. 
Occasionally news from the outer world reached him, 
and from this he found that his aims were deliberately 
perverted, and many were making mischief so that 
they might hinder him in his work. 

One day he tells us how, coming away from public 
worship, tidings greatly distressed him, for he was 
informed that he was represented to be a Roman 
Catholic in disguise, and that he was only instigating 
the Indians to rise against the English. This rumour 
made some immediately hold aloof, and others were 
quite willing for proper steps being taken to arrest 


him for punishment. His answer was clear upon the 
point ; he had strictly " minded his own business," he 
says, " and had nothing to do with parties and sects, 
preaching Christianity pure and simple," neither 
inviting to nor excluding from any meeting any, of 
any sort or persuasion whatsoever. Again he finds 
refuge in prayer, and quiets himself with the consola 
tions of God s Word. He is much refreshed in his 
own soul during his expositions to the Indians, and 
on opening the forty-sixth Psalm he felt that he could 
confide in the power and protection of the Almighty, 
even though his enemies should slander his character 
and seek to put him to death as a traitor to his 
earthly king. His feelings under this reproach are 
vividly expressed in the notes he wrote at the time, 
and he there threw a gleam of light upon the pro 
bable causes which have led him into such a path of 
persecution. He closely examines himself, and is 
jealous for the honour of God, and the success of His 
work among those poor heathen. " My spirits were 
still much sunk with what I heard the day before of 
my being suspected to be engaged in the Pretender s 
interest , it grieved me that after there had been so 
much evidence of a glorious work of grace among 
these poor Indians, as that the most carnal man could 
not but take notice of the great change made among 
them, so many poor souls should still suspect the 
whole to be only a Popish plot, and so cast an awful 
reproach on this blessed work of the Divine Spirit, 
and at the same time wholly exclude themselves from 
receiving any benefit by this Divine influence. This 
put me upon searching whether I had ever dropped 
anything inadvertently that might give occasion to 
any to suspect that I was stirring up the Indians 
against the English ; and could think of nothing 
unless it was my attempting sometimes to vindicate 
the rights of the Indians, and complaining of the 
horrid practice of making the Indians drunk, and 
then cheating them out of their lands and other pro- 


parties ; and now I remember I had done this with 
too much warmth of spirit, which much distressed me ; 
thinking that it might possibly prejudice them against 
this work of grace, to their everlasting destruction. 
God, I believe, did me good by this trial, which 
seemed to humble me, and show me the necessity of 
watchfulness, and of being wise as a serpent/ as 
well as * harmless as a dove. This exercise led me 
often to the throne of grace, and there I found some 
support, though I could not get the burden wholly 

In his intercourse with the Indians he was con 
stantly cheered with finding that his words had been 
a comfort and help to this people. One poor woman 
came to tell him in her broken English how she 
obtained release from all her fears, and was able to 
rejoice in being by Christ delivered from all her sins. 
Here is the substance of the conversation between the 
missionary and this simple and believing soul. 

" Me try, me try save myself, but my strength be 
all gone, could not let me stir bit further. Den last, 
me forced let Jesus Christ alone, send me hell if He 

" But you were not willing to go to hell, were you ? 

" * Could not me help it. My heart becomed wicked 
for all. Could not me make her good ? 

" I asked her how she got out of this case. 

" By-by my heart be grad desperately. 

" I asked her why her heart was glad. 

" * Grad my heart Jesus Christ do what He please 
with me. Den me tink, grad my heart Jesus Christ 
send me to hell. Did not me care where He put me, 
me to be Him for all. " 

Brainerd explains that this poor woman held to it 
that if it was the will of the Lord that she should go 
anywhere, to suffer anything, however terrible, she 
was satisfied. Some days afterwards, however, she 
obtained a clearer light on the will of God, and while 
quite ready still to rejoice in affliction, she entered 


into the joy of those who know Christ as a perfect 
and sufficient Saviour from all sin. On the day of 
her baptism she expressed her gratitude to the kind 
Christians in Scotland who had sent Mr. Brainerd to 
preach to the Indians ; she said, " her heart loved these 
good people so that she could scarce help praying for 
them all night." 

One of the most interesting cases of conversion 
which Brainerd notes in his journal is that of a very 
aged woman, who appeared childish and broken in 
strength, and who came to him for spiritual advice. 
From such a one he was not prepared to hear any 
thing like a rational idea on the subject of religion. 
But in this he was disappointed. After being led by 
the hand into his room, she tried to make him under 
stand the anguish of her soul. Her chief distress was, 
she told Brainerd, that she should never find Christ. 
As he knew she had never been instructed in Christ 
ian doctrine he pressed her with questions in order to 
find out the real cause of her distress. Her answer 
was to this effect : 

" She had heard me preach many times, but never 
knew anything about it, never felt it in her heart/ 
till the last Sabbath, and then it came, she said, all 
in, as if a needle had been thrust into her heart, since 
which time she had had no rest day or night. She 
added that on the evening before Christmas, a number 
of Indians being together at the house where she was, 
and discoursing about Christ, their talk pricked her 
heart, so that she could not sit up, but fell down on 
her bed, at which time she went away (as she expressed 
it) and felt as if she dreamed, and yet is confident she 
did not dream. When she was thus gone she saw two 
paths, one appeared very broad and crooked, and that 
turned to the left hand. The other appeared straight 
and very narrow, and ^towent up the hill to the right 
hand. She travelled, she said, for some time up the 
narrow right-hand path till at length something 
seemed to obstruct her journey. She sometimes 




called it darkness, and then described it otherwise, 
and seemed to compare it to a block or bar. She 
then remembered what she had heard me say about 
striving to enter in at the strait gate (although she 


took little notice of it at the time when she heard me 
discourse on the subject), and thought she would climb 
over this bar. But just as she was thinking of this she 
came back again, as she termed it, meaning that she 


came to herself, whereupon her soul was exceedingly 
distressed, apprehending that she had since turned 
back and forsaken Christ, and that, therefore, there 
was no hope of mercy for her." 

This remarkable statement, by one evidently sin 
cere, led Brainerd to ask further questions, believing 
as he did that it was one of the devices of Satan to 
deceive her and make her believe that she was under 
real conviction of sin. But ere long he was satisfied 
that this Indian mother, bowed down with the weight 
of fourscore years, really and truly was under the 
strivings of the Holy Ghost, and had been thus 
divinely taught as to her way of salvation. Before 
long she, too, was able to enter the strait gate, and 
become a pilgrim to the heavenly mansions thus late 
in life. 

Cries and lamentations met him at every turn as he 
talked to the people about the love of God and Christ 
Jesus. " It was an amazing season of power amongst 
them," he says, " and seemed as if God had * bowed 
the heavens and come down. So astonishingly pre 
valent was the operation upon old as well as young, 
that it seemed as if none would be left in a secure and 
natural state, but that God was now about to convert 
all the world. And I was ready to think then that 
I should never again despair of the conversion of any 
man or woman living, be they who or what they would. 
It is impossible to give a just and lively description of 
the appearance of things at this season, at least such 
as to convey a bright and adequate idea of the effects 
of this influence. A number might have been seen 
rejoicing that God had not taken away the principal 
influence of His blessed Spirit from this place. 
Refreshed to see so many striving to enter in at 
the strait gate, and animated with such concern for 
them, they wanted to push them forward, as some of 
them expressed it. At the same time numbers, both 
of men and women, old and young, might be seen in 
tears, and some in anguish of spirit, appearing in their 


very countenances, like condemned malefactors turned 
towards the place of execution with a heavy solicitude 
sitting on their faces ; so that there seemed here (as 
I thought) a lively emblem of the solemn day of 
accounts, mixture of heaven and hell, of joy and 
anguish inexpressible. The concern and religious 
affection was such that I could not pretend to have 
any formal religious exercise among them, but spent 
the time in discoursing to one and another, as I 
thought most proper and seasonable for each, and 
sometimes addressed them all together, and finally 
concluded with prayer. Such were their circumstances 
at this season that I could scarce have half -an- hour s 
rest from speaking from about half-an-hour before 
twelve o clock (at which time I began public worship) 
till past seven at night." 

He made at this time several visits to Elizabeth- 
town to see the " correspondents," as the representa 
tives of the Missionary Society were called. Here he 
discussed many plans for the enlargement of the work, 
and particularly his desire to establish Indian towns 
or settlements, to found a little colony, which should 
be a " mountain of holiness," but we have no record 
that in this aim he was successful. He had an unex 
pected trouble at the end of March of this year, in the 
sudden illness of his schoolmaster with pleurisy. Far 
away from medical assistance, the burden of nursing 
and tending the sick man fell upon him, and this duty 
he performed with infinite tenderness and self-sacrifice. 
He watched him constantly, sleeping on the floor at 
night that he might be ready if wanted. His own 
health began again to fail as a consequence, and his 
only solace was to snatch a few moments of the night 
in communion amid the silence of the woods. 

"Alas, my days pass away as chaff!" he cries in 
one of these meditations, " it is but little I do or can 
do that turns to any account, and it is my constant 
misery and burden that I am so fruitless in tfce vine 
yard of the Lord. O that I were spirit, that I might 


be active for God ! This (I think) more than any 
thing else makes me long that this corruptible might 
put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immor 
tality. God deliver me from clogs, fetters, and a 
body of death that impede my service for Him." 

This desire to fly away, not for rest but for increased 
activity, was to be satisfied ere long. The frail tene 
ment was not to abide much longer, and for Brainerd 
the day of deliverance was not far off. Somewhat 
wearied with incessant travelling, he expresses a wish 
at this time to settle among his people at the Indian 
territory. This he felt he might be justified in desir 
ing, seeing that the congregations gathered from time 
to time consisted of those who by his ministry had 
been called from darkness to light. 

" I never, since I began to preach," he says, " could 
feel any freedom to enter into other men s labours, 
and settle down in the ministry where the Gospel was 
preached before. I never could make that appear to 
be my province ; when I felt any disposition to con 
sult my ease and comfort, God has never given me 
any liberty in that respect, either since or for some 
years before I began to preach. But God having 
increased my labours, and made me instrumental in 
gathering a church for Him among the Indians, I was 
ready to think it might be His design to give me a 
quiet settlement and a stated home of my own." 

This is perhaps the only time in his journal where 
he mentions a personal preference ; but this perfectly 
natural desire was not to be fulfilled, and he again 
quite patiently and willingly accepted the providential 
working out of the Divine plan, however much 
human nature was contradicted thereby. He con 
sidered it clear that he was marked out for solitariness 
and hardship, and should be destitute of house and 
home comforts, which he was delighted to see others 
enjoy, calling himself by Divine grace a "pilgrim 
hermit," and says, that although as quick as any in 
the appreciation of the joys of human companion- 


ship, yet all these, " compared with the value and 
preciousness of an enlargement of Christ s kingdom, 
vanished like the stars before the rising sun." Falling 
on his knees in presence of this disappointment he 
once more utterly resigns himself and all that he 
counts dear to the will of God. " Farewell ! " he cries, 
" farewell friends and earthly comforts, the dearest of 
them all, the very dearest, if the Lord calls for it ; 
adieu, adieu, I will spend my life to my latest 
moments in caves and dens of the earth if the kingdom 
of Christ may be thereby advanced." 

In this complete consecration there was doubtless 
a human love laid on the altar, " the very dearest " 
may have referred to a secret attachment with the 
daughter of his great friend and literary executor, 
Rev. Jonathan Edwards. This Jerusha was a young 
girl, ripe in Christian experience and full of a similar 
spirit to that of Brainerd. Not even her name 
appears in any of his private diaries or papers, but 
we have the evidence of her father for the fact of their 
mutual love for each other. We shall meet her at 
his deathbed, to which sacred spot, 

"Blessed beyond the common walk of men, 
Quite on the verge of home," 

we shall now speedily pass with hushed footsteps and 
reverent feeling. 

" Oh, lightest burden, sweetest yoke ! 

It lifts, it bears my happy soul, 
It giveth wings to this poor heart ; 
My freedom is Thy grand control. 

" Upon God s will I lay me down, 

As child upon its mother s breast ; 
No silken couch or softest bed, 

Could ever give me such deep rest." 

Madame Guyon. 



" Christ hath the foundation laid, 

And Christ shall build me up ; 
Surely I shall soon be made 

Partaker of my hope ; 
Author of my faith He is, 

He its finisher shall be ; 
Perfect love shall seal me His, 

To all eternity." Wesley. 

IT will have been observed that Brainerd, while so 
fully engrossed with his spiritual interest in the 
Indians, was also ready to stand as their practical 
friend whenever help was needed. His unvarying 
immunity from any personal danger, even when alone 
and unarmed he wandered at midnight through the 
solitary woods, may be accounted for partly by the 
fact that he was felt to be, throughout all the tribes, 
their friend. All this loyalty to his poor clients 
aroused the jealousy of the whites, but still the young 



missionary stood by the redskin and sheltered him 
from oppression and wrong. 

An instance of this is seen in his action where he 
found the Indian communities had run into grievous 
debt with the white man on account of the strong 
drink which he, alas ! all too liberally supplied to them. 
The defaulters were in many cases speedily arrested, 
and an attempt was made to take from them their 
hunting grounds to release the debt. Brainerd knew 
that this must mean their ruin, and immediately con 
ferred with the representatives of the Society which 
employed him, in order to advance the Indians some 
funds so that their lands might not pass out of their 
possession. Another reason which impelled Brainerd 
to bring help in this direction was the long hoped for 
establishment of a Christian Indian congregation or 
town. He tells us that on one occasion the sum he 
disbursed for this purpose was eighty-five pounds, five 
shillings, which seems ridiculously small now-a-days 
but was a considerable sum in the times in which he 

His schoolmaster having now recovered we note 
that thirty children or young persons are found under 
tuition every day, and in the evening fifteen married 
people are only too glad to avail themselves of a little 
free education. Brainerd seems to have paid consider 
able attention to this branch of the work ; one day he 
tells us that he distributed a dozen primers among 
his people, and it was his custom to frequently 
catechise them upon their progress in study. 

The spiritual work, which of course was his chief 
concern, continued to show signs of a real living 
success. He adopted the wise method of taking with 
him on his missionary journeys half-a-dozen of his 
more earnest and capable Christian converts, and 
these were of great assistance. But in those Indian 
forests, in the midst of those clusters of wigwams, 
Brainerd found just the same variety of reception of 
the truth as St Paul in the classic and philosophic 


Athens. "Some of them," says he, "who had, in 
times past, been extremely averse to Christians now 
behaved soberly, and some others laughed and 
mocked. However, the Word of God fell with such 
weight and power that sundry seemed to be stunned, 
and expressed a willingness to hear me again on 
these matters. Afterwards prayed with and made 
an address to the white people present, and could not 
but observe some visible effects of the word, such as 
tears and sobs, among them. After public worship 
spent some time and took pains to answer those that 
mocked, of the truth and importance of what I had 
been insisting upon, and so endeavoured to awaken 
their attention to Divine truths. And had reason to 
think, from what I observed then and afterwards, 
that my endeavours took considerable effect upon one 
of the worst of them. Those few Indians then present, 
who used to be my hearers in these parts (some 
having removed from hence to Crossweeksung), 
seemed more kindly disposed toward and glad to see 
me again : they had been so much attacked by some 
of the opposing pagans that they were almost 
ashamed or afraid to manifest their friendship." 

Of his own people Brainerd speaks with evident 
encouragement. " I know of no assembly of Christ 
ians where there seems to be so much of the presence 
of God, where brotherly love so much prevails, and 
where I take so much delight in the public worship of 
God, in the general as in my own congregation, 
although not more than nine months ago they were 
worshipping devils and dumb idols, under the power 
of pagan darkness and superstition. Amazing change 
this ! effected by nothing less than Divine power and 
grace ! This is the doing of the Lord, and it is 
justly marvellous in our eyes ! 

Nothing rejoiced the heart of this good and faithful 
servant more than to see in his people the beautiful 
fruit of a new heart and redeemed nature. He was 
ready at any time to listen to the yearning of these 


poor Indians for instruction, and literally carried out 
the Scripture admonition, " Rejoice with them that 
do rejoice, and weep with them that weep." With 
penitents he was patient and affectionate ; knowing in 
his own heart what self-abasement was, he could 
enter into the experience of those, who, awakened to 
a sense of their own unworthiness, were seeking the 
Saviour of sinners. One day after public worship 
had concluded, Brainerd was accompanied home 
wards by a large concourse of anxious people who 
filled his house and prayed for more of his prayers 
and teaching. He was then greatly filled with glad 
ness at the sight of one poor Indian woman who had 
found Christ, and was " filled with joy unspeakable, 
and full of glory." In the midst of the people she 
continually broke out in crying for very joy and 
praising God, sometimes in English, sometimes in 
Indian, but always with fervour. She longed to be 
gone, to depart and be with Jesus, which she felt would 
be far better. "O blessed Lord/ 5 she cried aloud, 
" do come, do come ! O do take me away, do let me 
die and go to Jesus Christ ! I am afraid if I live 
I shall sin again ! O do let me die now ! O dear 
Jesus do come ! I cannot stay, I cannot stay ! " The 
longing to be " absent from the body " which this 
Indian woman expressed with such fervour, arose 
from such a dread of sin, that she felt her safety 
against grieving her Saviour was in freedom from the 
temptations of life and mortality. After a time 
Brainerd spoke to her with words of encouragement 
and tenderness, asking whether Christ was not now 
sweet to her soul. 

She turned upon him eyes brimming with happy 
tears, and yet speaking in tones of lowliness and 
humility, said : " I have many times heard you speak 
of the goodness and sweetness of Christ, that He was 
better than all the world. But O ! I knew nothing 
what you meant, I never believed you ! I never 
believed you ! But now I know it is true ! " 


" Do you see," said Brainerd, " enough in Christ for 
the greatest of sinners ? " 

With an ecstasy of emotion the woman answered : 
" O ! enough, enough ! for all the sinners of the 
world if they would but come." 

Then at his request, she turned round to the Indian 
men and women in the crowd who had been listening 
to her words with much interest and weeping. " Oh ! 
there is enough," she cried, "enough in Christ for 
you if you would but come ! O strive, strive to give 
up your hearts to Him ! " 

About this convert Brainerd makes some very 
interesting and instructive notes in his journal, which 
are well worth quotation. 

" Of all the persons I have seen under spiritual 
exercise I scarce ever saw one so bowed and broken 
under convictions of sin and misery (or what is usually 
called a preparatory work\ than this woman. Nor 
scarce any who seemed to have a greater acquaintance 
with her own heart than she had. She would 
frequently complain to me of the hardness and 
rebellion of her heart. Would tell me her heart rose 
and quarrelled with God, when she thought He would 
do with her as He pleased, and send her to hell not 
withstanding her prayers, good graces, etc. ; that her 
heart was not willing to come to Christ for salvation, 
but tried everywhere else to help. 

"And as she seemed to be remarkably sensible of 
her stubbornness and contrariety to God, under convic 
tion, so she appeared to be no less remarkably bowed 
and reconciled to Divine sovereigntybefoYe she obtained 
any relief or comfort. . . . Since which time she has 
seemed constantly to breathe the spirit and temper 
of the new creature, crying after Christ, not through 
fear of hell as before, but with strong desire after Him 
as her only satisfying portion, and has many times 
wept and sobbed bitterly, because (as she apprehended) 
she did not, and could not, love Him. When I have 
sometimes asked her why she appeared so sorrowful, 


and whether she thought it was because she was 
afraid of hell ? she would answer, No, I am not 
distressed about that, but my heart is so wicked that 
I cannot love Christ, and thereupon burst into tears. 
But though this has been the habitual frame of her 
mind for several weeks together, so that the exercise 
of grace appeared evident to others, yet she seemed 
wholly insensible of it herself, and never had any 
remarkable comfort and sensible satisfaction till this 

"This sweet and surprising ecstasy appeared to 
spring from a true spiritual discovery of the glory, 
ravishing beauty and excellency of Christ, and not 
from any gross imaginary notions of His human 
nature, such as that of seeing Him in such place or 
posture, as hanging on the cross, as bleeding, dying, 
as gently smiling and the like ; which delusions some 
have been carried away with. Nor did it rise from 
sordid, selfish apprehensions of her having any benefit 
whatsoever conferred on her, but from a view of His 
personal excellency and transcendent loveliness, which 
drew forth those vehement desires of enjoying Him 
she now manifested, and made her long * to be absent 
from the body and present with the Lord. The 
attendants of this ravishing comfort were such as 
abundantly discerned its spring to be Divine, and that 
it was truly a joy in the Holy Ghost. Now she 
received Divine truths as living realities, and could 
say, I know these things are so, I feel they are true. 
Now her soul was resigned to the Divine will in the 
most tender points, so that when I said to her, what 
if God should take away your husband from you 
(who was very sick) how do you think you could bear 
that ? She replied, He belongs to God and not to 
me, He may do with him just as He pleases. Now 
she had the most tender sense of the evil of sin, and 
discovered the utmost aversion to it, longing to die 
that she might be delivered from it. Now she could 
freely trust her all with God for time and eternity. 


And when I questioned her how she could be wishing 
to die and leave her little infant, and what she thought 
would become of it in that case, she answered, 
God will take care of it. It belongs to Him, He 
will take care of it. Now she appeared to have the 
most humbling sense of her own meanness and 
unworthiness, her weakness and inability to preserve 
herself from sin and to persevere in the way of holi 
ness, crying, If I live I shall sin. " 

Changes have taken place in Christian theology 
since those Puritan days and the old paths are some 
of them quite grass grown, but this brief page of a 
spiritual history shows that the power of the Gospel 
was efficacious then, as it is now, for changing 
the heart and revivifying the life, so that " old things 
are passed away and all things have become new." 
David Brainerd was not the man to be satisfied with 
an external and emotional phase of religion, he 
catechised his converts with a view to finding how 
much and how deep was the real spiritual knowledge 
they possessed. Mere religious concern, he observes, 
is not true religion. He notes with satisfaction that 
the pagans awakened by the preaching of Christ and 
Him crucified, "seemed at once to put off their 
savage rudeness and pagan manners, and become 
sociable, orderly, and humane in their carnage." 

When once the light of a Christian faith was 
kindled in their hearts, they seem to have had a 
perfect fear of lapsing back into their old state of sin. 
An instance of this is seen in their conduct one after 
noon, when Brainerd had been explaining to his little 
flock of Christians what was the discipline enjoined 
by the New Testament in treating offenders in the 
Church. Upon his showing them that after repeated 
effort on the part of the brethren to restore one who 
had been a castaway, he must be treated as a heathen 
man or pagan without part or lot in the matter, 
they were much affected, even alarmed. Of this, 
they seemed to have the most awful apprehensions; a 


state of heathenism out of which they were so lately 
brought appearing very dreadful to them. They 
frequently met together for worship amongst them 
selves, when an old chief, who had received the light, 
spoke earnestly of Christ s power to save. 

On another occasion, he brought his people 
together for the ordinance of the Lord s Supper, 
having previously set apart a whole day for fasting 
and prayer. He spoke to them of the obligations of 
Christian fellowship, besought them to be humble in 
their walk before God and avoid the careless indiffer 
ence which crept over some who had stood with them 
once and seemed at that time deeply impressed, 
praying earnestly that God would preserve them from 
the evil attempts of their enemies to disperse them. 
Brainerd bade them join him in partaking of the 
symbols of the passion of the Lord. It seems to have 
been a season of peculiar blessing, for he tells us 
"This solemn transaction was attended with much 
gravity and seriousness, and, at the same time, with 
utmost readiness, freedom, and cheerfulness, and a 
religious union and harmony of soul seemed to 
crown the whole solemnity." 

In the month of May, 1747, Brainerd visited 
Northampton, and, in consequence of some graver 
symptoms in his disease, pushed on to the house of 
his friend, Jonathan Edwards, where one Dr. Mather 
was called in to see him. The physician, after 
examination, told him frankly of his condition, that 
he was in a confirmed consumption from which 
he had not the least chance of recovery. Such a 
statement to most men would mean a startled fear 
and deep depression, but to this man of God, it 
brought no discomposure nor interfered with the 
cheerfulness of his heart and conversation. Opening 
his diary a few days afterwards, he makes the follow 
ing comment upon his condition : 

" My attention was greatly engaged and my soul so 
drawn forth, this day, by what I heard of the exceed- 


ing preciousness of the saving grace of God s Spirit, 
that it almost overcame my body in my weak state. 
I saw that true grace is exceeding precious indeed, 
that it is very rare, and that there is but a very small 
degree of it, even where the reality of it is to be 
found ; at least, I saw this to be my case. In the 
preceding week, I enjoyed some comfortable seasons 
of meditation. One morning, the cause of God 
appeared exceeding precious to me, the Redeemer s 
kingdom is all that is valuable to me on earth, and 
I could not but long for the promotion of it in the 
world. I saw also that this cause is God s, that He 
has an infinitely greater regard and concern for it than 
I could possibly have, that if I have any true love to 
His blessed interest, it is only a drop derived from the 
ocean ; hence, I was ready to lift up my heart with 
joy, and conclude, Well, if God s cause be so dear 
and precious to Him, He will promote it. And thus 
I did, as it were, rest in God ; that surely He would 
promote that which was agreeable to His own will, 
though the time when must still be left to His 
sovereign pleasure." 

His physicians, possibly recognising that his habit 
of incessant activity was a necessity of his life, now 
gave him the somewhat strange advice that, if he 
would continue riding as much as possible, it would 
tend to prolong his life. This recommendation he 
acted upon most literally ; from that moment till his 
death he was constantly in the saddle, and swiftly 
passing from place to place. One would have thought 
that rest and quiet would have been much more bene 
ficial to the over-strung, over-wearied missionary ; but 
as he felt the light of life gradually burning low, he 
redoubled his exertion to proclaim the Gospel far 
and wide before the call came. But the effort caused 
him exquisite suffering. " There is no rest," he cries, 
" but in God, fatigues of body and anxieties of mind 
attend us both in town and country ; no place is 



Here is his record of an incidertt in his travels, 
which nearly made him speedily "finish his course 
with joy." 

"On Thursday, i8th June, I was taken exceeding 
ill, and brought to the gates of death, by the breaking 
of small ulcers in my lungs, as my physicians sup 
posed. In this extreme weak state I continued for 
several weeks, and was frequently reduced so low as 
to be utterly speechless and not able so much as to 
whisper a word ; and, even after I had so far revived 
as to walk about the house, and to step out of doors, 
I was exercised every day with a faint turn, which 
continued usually four or five hours, at which times, 
though I was not so utterly speechless but that I 
could say Yes or No, yet I could not converse at all, 
nor speak one sentence, without making stops for 
breath ; and divers times in this season my friends 
gathered round my bed, to see me breathe my last, 
which they looked for every moment as I myself 

" How I was the first day or two of my illness, with 
regard to the exercise of reason, I scarcely know, I 
believe I was somewhat shattered by the violence of 
the fever at times, but the third day of my illness, and 
constantly afterwards for four or five weeks together, 
I enjoyed as much serenity of mind and clearness of 
thought as perhaps I ever did in my life, and I think 
my mind never penetrated with so much ease and 
freedom into Divine things as at this time, and I never 
felt so capable of demonstrating the truth of many 
important doctrines of the Gospel as now." 

Thus, in the midst of great physical weakness and 
pain, Brainerd s soul held communion with his God. 
It was natural that, when no longer running from 
place to place, his mind, so set on the work of the 
Lord, should outrun him, and that his thoughts and 
prayers should be constantly with his beloved flock in 
the Indian forests, at the Forks of the Delaware. He 
thought much of a man, who had been a very popular 


conjuror and pow-wow, and who, after following his 
juggling tricks and charming the people with his 
superstitions, had heard the Word under the ministry 
of Brainerd, and become perfectly unhappy on account 
of his sins. His power of conjuration suddenly left 
him, he could no longer perform the tricks and jug 
gling which had made him such an attraction to the 
people, and with a wounded spirit was for ever crying, 
" I can never do any more to save myself, all done for 
ever, I can do no more ; my heart is dead, I can never 
help myself, I must go to hell." After being thus 
dejected for a long space, he came to Brainerd with 
the eager inquiry, " When would I preach again ? " for 
he wanted to hear the Word of God every day. 
" But," said the Missionary, " I thought you said your 
heart was dead, and all was done ? " His reply was, " I 
love to hear you speak about Christ for all." Although 
miserable and uncomforted himself, he had a strange 
desire to see others converted. " I would have others 
come to Christ, if I go to hell myself," was his remark, 
as for himself, he still persisted that all that he did 
signified nothing at all. 

" But," says Brainerd, " after he had continued in this 
frame of mind more than a week, while I was dis 
coursing publicly, he seemed to have a lively soul- 
refreshing view of the excellency of Christ and the 
way of salvation by Him, which melted him to tears 
and filled him with admiration, comfort, satisfaction 
and praise to God. Since, he has offered to be a 
humble, devout and affectionate Christian, serious 
and exemplary in his conversation, frequently com 
plaining of his barrenness, his want of spiritual 
warmth, life and activity, and yet frequently favoured 
with quickening and refreshing influences. In all 
respects as far as I am able to judge, he bore the 
marks and characters of one created anew in Christ 
to good works. " 

Many of the thoughts which shone out so lumin 
ously in the mind of Brainerd during this time of 


prostration, are quite as applicable to the experiences 
of the Christians of to-day. He passed in review the 
constant strife between good and evil in the world, 
and asked himself why the Church was so powerless 
and inactive. He trembled for the fate of those whose 
self-confidence was the chief characteristic of their 

" These things I saw," he writes, " with great clear 
ness, when I was thought to be dying, and God gave 
me great concern for His Church and interest in the 
world at this time ; not so much because the late 
remarkable influence upon the minds of the people 
was abated, as because that false religion those 
hearts of imaginations and wild and selfish commo 
tions of the animal affections which attended the work 
of grace, had prevailed so far. This was that which 
my mind dwelt upon, almost day and night, and this 
to me was the darkest appearance respecting religion 
in the land, for it was this chiefly that had prejudiced 
the world against inward religion. And I saw the 
great misery of all was, that so few saw any manner 
of difference between those exercises that are spiritual 
and holy, and these which have self-love only for 
their beginning, centre and end." 

Thus lying on a bed of sickness, but supported by 
the grace of God, he longed for the time when he 
should again revisit his Indians. This honour was 
not to be, his race was nearly run, and his work 
almost accomplished. 

" I long to see this excellence 

Which at such distance strikes my sense 
My impatient soul struggles to disengage 

Her wings from the confinement of her cage, 
Wouldst Thou great Love this prisoner once set free 
How would she hasten to be linked with Thee ! 
She d for no angel conduct stay 
But fly and love on all the way." 

/ Norris. 



" Lord, Thou hast joined my soul to Thine 

In bonds no power can sever ; 
Grafted in Thee, the living Vine, 

I shall be Thine for ever. 
Lord, when I die, I die to Thee, 
Thy precious death hath won for me 

A life that never endeth." Hermann. 

ALTHOUGH Brainerd was never to go amongst 
his Indians again, the severity of his illness 
relaxed for a few weeks, and he was able to 
receive his friends, and even make short visits 
out of doors. This brief stay in Beulah land within 
sight of the golden city, was a special happiness, both 
to the invalid and his friends. It was a constant 
source of thankfulness to him, and afterwards much 
commented upon by those he left behind, that a Pro 
vidence seems to have most wisely ordered the 
arrangements of these final days. He had been 
spared to see in the wonderful revival of religion 
among the Indians the salvation of God ere he was 



laid aside, Unlike his brave predecessor, John 
Eliot, he had the joy of seeing a Christian church 
established among the Indians, with the reverent 
institutions and preachers of the ordinances ; to know 
that the old vagrant life of these people had been 
abandoned, their idolatries given up, the habits of 
murderous war exchanged for the peaceful pursuits 
of husbandry. When he left their settlement at the 
Forks of Delaware, the children were in school, and 
giving promise of a useful future. Not only this was 
a matter of real encouragement, but the publication 
of the former part of his journal had awakened a new 
impulse of interest for missions among the Indians, and 
in distant parts of America people were coming for 
ward, not only with money, but offering themselves 
for a work which God had so highly forwarded in the 
hands of Brainerd. He did not, in fact, leave the 
field until his own brother, who had been greatly 
stimulated with the same devotion to the cause, had 
just finished his college course, and was ready to 
enter upon the work as his coadjutor and successor. 

He had been taken ill while staying with his friend, 
Mr. Dickinson, at Elizabethtown, and for a time his 
life was then despaired of ; but from this he recovered 
sufficiently to reach Boston at a time when it seemed 
providentially most suitable. The " Honourable Com 
missioners " of the Society, under whose direction he 
worked, had just reached Boston for the purpose ot 
examining into the work, and appropriating at once, 
under the recent legacy of Dr. Williams, a sum of 
money for the support of two new missionaries to the 
Indians of the Six Nations. These candidates 
Brainerd was able to see himself, and instruct them 
in the best means of advancing the work which lay 
before them. Not the least of the works of Provi 
dence at this time was in the fact that he went to die 
under the roof of his friend and biographer, Jonathan 
Edwards, who happily dissuaded him from suppressing 
or destroying the whole of his journal and papers. 


Had these never seen the light, one of the most inter 
esting and stimulating works in missionary literature 
would have been lost to the world. Instead of doing 
that, however, he carefully prepared his diary and 
journal for the press, and had only just finished this 
important duty when death snatched the pen. 

Brainerd was an excellent if not a considerable 
letter writer, and some few of his epistles are still 
preserved. Here and there we have a few lines 
written to his brother at Yale College (who succeeded 
him), describing his own labours, and disclosing many 
of the privations and adventures which it was his lot 
to endure. In one sentence of a letter, written from 
Crossweeksung in December, 1745, ne shows how the 
burden of the Lord was upon him, and with a restless 
anxiety, he was ever pushing on. 

" I am in one continual, perpetual, and uninter 
rupted hurry, and Divine providence throws so much 
upon me that I do not see that it will ever be other 
wise. May I obtain mercy of God to be faithful 
unto the death ! I cannot say I am weary of my 
hurry ; I only want strength and grace to do more for 
God than I have ever yet done." 

To another brother he finds time to write while 
still ill at Boston, when, indeed, he thought his end 
was very nigh. At the time of writing this letter he 
was by no means satisfied as to the spiritual condition 
of this brother, Israel, and, therefore, he implores him 
with dying intensity to give himself to God, and 
follow in his steps to do His glory, and further His 
kingdom. What weight and directness are in these 
closing words : 

" You, my dear brother, I have been particularly 
concerned for, and have wondered I so much neglected 
conversing with you about your spiritual state at our 
last meeting. O, my brother, let me then beseech 
you now to examine whether you are indeed a new 
creature ? Whether you have ever acted above self? 
Whether the glory of God has ever been the sweetest 


and highest concern with you ? Whether you have 
ever been reconciled to all the perfections of God? 
In a word whether God has been your portion and a 
holy conformity to Him your chief delight ? If you 
cannot answer positively, consider seriously the fre 
quent breathings of your soul, but do not, however, 
put yourself off with a slight answer. If you have 
reason to think you are graceless, O, give yourself 
and the Throne of Grace no rest till God arise and 
save. But if the case should be otherwise, bless God 
for His grace, and press after holiness. 

" My soul longs that you should be fitted for, and 
in due time go into the work of the ministry. I can 
not bear to think of you going into any other business 
in life. Do not be discouraged because you see your 
elder brothers in the ministry die early one after the 
other. I declare, now I am dying, I would not have 
spent my life otherwise for the whole world." 

The young brother to whom the foregoing was 
written was able to reach his bedside sometime before 
he died, and gave, to the inexpressible joy of the 
departing saint, real evidence of being a Christian. 

His brother John, who became his successor in the 
work, was much upon his mind at this closing season 
of his life, and to him far away among the Christian 
Indians, fighting the good fight of faith as his brother 
had done, one very precious letter was sent. He 
speaks of himself as "just on the verge of eternity, 
expecting very speedily to appear in the unseen 
world." With many warm and earnest words he 
glorifies God for His mercy and the grace which has 
sustained him amid many trials. And he wants, as a 
departing legacy, to warn, exhort, and instruct his 
brother in the Divine life. His words are solemn, 
and he speaks as one whose hand is already upon the 
latch of that door from whence there is no return till 
the trumpet of God shall sound. 

" And now, my dear brother, as I must press you to 
pursue after personal holiness, to be as much in fast- 



ing and prayer as your health will allow, and to live 
above the rate of common Christians ; so I must 
entreat you solemnly to attend to your public work ; 
labour to distinguish between true and false religion, 
and to that end watch the motions of God s Spirit 
upon your own heart. Look to Him for help, and 
impartially compare your affections with His Word. 

Read Mr. Edwards 
on the Affections! 
where the essence 
and soul of religion 
is clearly distin 
guished from false 
affection. Value 
religious joys accor 
ding to the subject- 
matter of them ; 
there are many 
who rejoice in their 
supposed justifica 
tion but what do 
these joys argue 
but only that they love themselves ? Whereas in 
true spiritual joys the soul rejoices in God for what 
He is in Himself; blesses God for His holiness, 
sovereignty, power, faithfulness, and all His perfec 
tions ; adores God that He is what He is ; that He 
is unchangeably possessed of infinite glory and happi 
ness. Now, when men thus rejoice in the perfections 


of God, and in the infinite excellency of the way of 
salvation by Christ, and in the holy commands of God, 
which are a transcript of His holy nature, these joys 
are Divine and spiritual. Our joys will stand by us at 
the hour of death, if we can be then satisfied that we 
have thus acted above self, and in a disinterested 
manner, if I may so express it, rejoiced in the glory 
of the blessed God. I fear you are not sufficiently 
aware how much false religion there is in the world ; 
many serious Christians and valuable ministers are too 
easily imposed upon by this false blaze. I likewise 
fear you are not sensible of the dreadful effects and 
consequences of this false religion. Let me tell you it 
is the devil transformed into an angel of light ; it is a 
brat of hell, and always springs up with every revival 
of religion, and stabs and murders the cause of God, 
while it passes current with multitudes of well-mean 
ing people for the height of religion. Set yourself, 
my brother, to crush all appearances of this nature 
among the Indians, and never encourage any degrees 
of heat without light. Charge my people in the name 
of their dying minister yea, in the name of Him who 
was dead and is alive, to live and walk as becomes the 
Gospel. Tell them how great the expectations of 
God and His people are from them, and how awfully 
they will wound God s cause if they fall into vice, as 
well as fatally prejudice other poor Indians. Always 
insist that their experiences are rotten, that their joys 
are delusive, although they may have been rapt up 
into the third heaven in their own conceit by them, 
unless the main tenour of their lives be spiritual, 
watchful, and holy. In pressing these things thou 
shalt save thyself and those that hear thee. 

" God knows I was heartily willing to have served 
Him longer in the work of the ministry, although it 
had still been attended with the labours and hardships 
of past years, if He had seen fit that it should be so ; 
but as His will now appears otherwise, I am fully 
content, and can, with utmost freedom, say, The 


will of the Lord be done. It affects me to think of 
leaving you in a world of sin, my heart pities you, 
that these storms and tempests are yet before you, 
which I trust, through grace, I am delivered from. 
But * God lives, and blessed be my Rock. He is the 
same Almighty Friend ; and will, I trust, be your 
Guide and Helper, as He has been mine." 

Besides writing these letters, he was able, during 
these hours of weakness, to converse with many who 
were attracted to his bedside either by a desire to hear 
of the wonderful work accomplished by him among 
the Indians, or by an anxiety about their own spirit 
ual state. His heart was with his Indians, and their 
faces and feathered hair were constantly before his 
mind. From distant parts of the country, people 
came to where he lay at Boston, many ministers of 
every denomination, and laymen of influence and 
position. To these, one theme was the paramount 
subject of his conversation that of vital and sound 
religion, and the blessed experience of delighting in 
God. His soul, rapidly ripening for the garner of 
the Lord, was set upon heavenly things, and now that, 
for a brief space, he could no longer labour, he felt 
that he must wait patiently, and testify to all of the 
goodness of God. Brainerd seems to have had an 
increasing dread of people having a mere form of 
godliness, holding with firm allegiance to doctrines 
which, true in themselves, have no effect whatever 
upon their outward life, or the principles which move 
their actions and words. He was also jealous for 
Scripture teaching, as distinguished from the fantastic 
ideas which characterised the theology of that far- 
off time, as they do our own. 

" I always conversed of the things of religion," he 
says, in later notes referring to the present time, " and 
was peculiarly disposed and assisted in distinguishing 
between the true and false religions of the times. 
There was scarce any subject, that has been matter of 
debate in the later day, but what I was, at one time 


or other, brought to a sort of necessity to discourse 
upon, and state my opinions, and that frequently 
before numbers of people ; and especially I discoursed 
repeatedly on the nature and necessity of that 
humiliation, self -emptiness, and full conviction of a 
person s being utterly undone in himself, which is 
necessary to a saving faith, and the extreme difficulty 
of being brought to this, and the great danger there 
is of persons taking up with self-righteous appearances 
of it. The danger of this I especially dwelt upon, 
being persuaded that multitudes perish in this hidden 
way ; and because so little is said from most pulpits 
to discover any danger here, so that persons being 
never effectually brought to die in themselves, are 
never truly united to Christ, and so perish. I also 
discoursed much on what I take to be the essence of 
true religion, endeavouring plainly to describe that 
God-like temper and disposition of soul, and that holy 
conversation and behaviour, that may justly claim the 
honour of having God for its original and patron. 
And I have reason to hope God blessed my way of 
discoursing and distinguishing to some, both ministers 
and people, so that my time was not wholly lost" 

One result of these visits was that some generous 
souls, being deeply interested in the accounts he gave 
them of his work at the Forks of Delaware, sent three 
dozen Bibles for his school (no mean or inexpensive 
gift in those days), and fourteen pounds in money, to 
be expended for the good of the cause there. 

After being so near death s door, there came a 
marvellous rally, and Brainerd, to the astonishment of 
his friends, began to show some amendment in 
strength. How bad he had been may be seen by an 
account given by the faithful Jerusha, who was his 
constant nurse until the very last. She speaks of his 
delirious fever, and how one Saturday evening they 
all sat up with him during the night, fearing any 
moment might prove his last. His lungs were so 
diseased that the physician said he had no hopes of 


his life, and that in one of his hours of extreme 
debility he must pass away. This he thought him 
self, and told one of his friends that he was as 
certainly a dead man as if he had been shot through 
the heart. But he was not yet to go. Just as he 
began to revive, his young brother Israel hastened 
with alarm to his bedside, and this gave him much 
pleasure, although it was dashed with the intelligence 
of his sister s sudden death at Haddam, his native 
place. As soon as he was sufficiently recovered, we 
find him leaving Boston one cool afternoon, accom 
panied by many friends, and after a week s travel, 
doing sixteen miles horseback each day, he reached 
Northampton. The effort cost him much, and from 
that moment he began to diminish in strength every 
day. But his heart was strong and his faith unfailing. 
He makes this note in his diary under date Lord s 
Day, the 26th of July, 1747, " This day I saw clearly 
that I should never be happy ; yea, that God Himself 
could not make me happy, unless I could be in a 
capacity to please and glorify Him for ever. Take 
away this, and admit me into all the fine heavens that 
can be conceived of by men or angels, and I should 
still be miserable for ever." 

Here, as at Boston, many visited him, and to some 
he gave most interesting details of his own spiritual 
experiences, but so averse was he to any show or 
fussy talk about religion that he bade those to whom 
he had confided these matters make no mention of 
them until after his death. 

On the i6th of August, 1747, he was able to attend 
public worship for the last time, and a week later 
when he could not leave his room, he made a reference 
in his diary as follows : " This morning I was con 
siderably refreshed with the thought, yea, the hope 
and expectation of the enlargement of Christ s king 
dom ; and I could not but hope the time was at hand 
when Babylon the Great would fall and rise no 
more. This led me to some spiritual meditation that 


was very refreshing to me. I was unable to attend 
public worship either part of the day, but God was 
pleased to afford me fixedness and satisfaction in 
Divine thoughts. Nothing so refreshes my soul as 
when I can go to God, yea, to God my exceeding 

Once more confined to his room, and this for the 
last time, he again busied himself with his Indian 
affairs ; wrote at large to the Commissioners at Boston 
respecting the projected development of the work, 
and recommended two young men to be sent into 
the field without delay. Just then, to his great joy, 
his brother John, who had taken up his work in New 
Jersey, came unexpectedly to see him, bringing him 
loving messages from his people and good news of 
their progress. One of the most noteworthy incidents 
of this visit was that his brother brought with him 
many manuscripts which had been left behind, 
amongst others, this precious diary which has since 
been such a faithful memorial of him. 

A little over-exertion a few days later laid him 
prostrate, and those who watched him thought they 
discerned signs of approaching death. Observing 
their anxiety he called out, " O the glorious time is 
coming ! I have longed to serve God perfectly, now 
God will gratify these desires ! " 

He was not to die then, but it is on record that his 
spirits rose with every intimation of the coming 
release, and only fell when it seemed as if he must 
linger longer still outside the gates. His talk, as he 
looked upon the faces of his friends, was full of 
intense love and devotion to God, yearning with an 
inexpressible ardour to be useful, to promote by 
every means His glory. We have few memorials of 
the triumphant end of any saint of God so rich in the 
glorious foretaste of the " abundant entrance " to the 
city of light. His mind was perfectly clear, and his 
eyes glistened with Divine rapture, as he told his 
watchers : 


" My heaven is to please God and glorify Him, and 
to give all to Him, and to be wholly devoted to His 
day; that is the heaven I long for; that is my religion, 
and that is my happiness, and always was ever since, 
I suppose, I had any true religion ; and all those 
that are of that religion shall meet me in heaven. 
I do not go to heaven to be advanced but to give 
honour to God. It is no matter where I shall be 
stationed in heaven, whether I have a high or a low 
seat there, but to love, and please, and glorify God is 
all. Had I a thousand souls, if they were worth 
anything, I would give them all to God, but I have 
nothing to give when all is done. It is impossible for 
any rational creature to be happy without acting all 
for God. God Himself could not make him happy 
any other way. I long to be in heaven praising and 
glorifying God with the holy angels, all my desire is 
to glorify God. My heart goes out to this burying- 
place, it seems to me a desirable place, but oh ! to 
glorify God ! that is it, that is above all. It is a great 
comfort for me to think that I have done a little for 
God and the world. Oh ! it is but a very small 
matter, yet I have done a little^ and I lament it that 
I have not done more for Him. There is nothing in 
the world worth living for but doing good and finish 
ing God s work, doing the work that Christ did. 
I see nothing else in the world that can yield any 
satisfaction besides living to God, pleasing Him, and 
doing His whole will. My greatest joy and comfort 
has been to do something for promoting the interests 
of religion, and the souls of particular persons, and 
now, in my illness, while I am full of pain and distress, 
from day to day, all the comfort I have is in being 
able to do some little char (or small piece of work) for 
God, either by something that I say, or by writing, or 
by some other way." 

When he refers to his physical condition as full of 
pain and distress, it is no exaggeration, for we have 
glimpses in his private diary of what sufferings he 


patiently bore. The words just quoted were not those 
of one quietly and painlessly passing away, but were 
uttered often when the fever consumed his vitals, and 
every nerve seemed a vehicle of pain. If the spirit 
chafed at all, it chafed like the imprisoned bird of 
liberty. " Oh my dear Lord, I am speedily coming 
to Thee, I hope," was his ejaculation when the agony 
was fiercest. 

He had little strength to write now, but a few 
scrawled entries appear in his diary, such as : " Lords 
Day, September 2jth. This was a very comfortable 
day to my soul ; I think / awoke with God. I was 
enabled to lift up my soul to God early this morning, 
and while I had little bodily strength, I found freedom 
to lift up my heart to God for myself and others. 
Afterwards was pleased with the thoughts of speedily 
entering into the unseen world." On that particular 
morning it was observed how much exhilarated he 
was, and, greeting his friends as they came into his 
room with exceeding pleasure, he said : 

" I was born on a Sabbath Day ; I have reason to 
think I was new born on a Sabbath Day ; and I hope 
I shall die on this Sabbath Day. I shall look upon 
it as a favour if it may be the will of God that it 
should be so ; I long for the time. O why is His 
chariot so long in coming ? Why tarry the wheels of 
His chariot?" The end was now not far off. His 
desire that the liberating angel should come and set 
him free on that day was not granted. For more than 
a week he lay waiting, blaming himself ofttimes for 
his impatience; and at one time he lay so long speech 
less that those who loved him bent their ear to his lips, 
thinking he was really gone, but could still catch the 
whispered prayer, " Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly." 
Reviving again, he asked them to sing the iO2nd Psalm, 
and with full hearts those sacred words of David s cry 
in his affliction were uttered again in the ears of the 
God of Sabaoth, " Hear my prayer, O Lord, and let 
my cry come unto Thee, Hide not Thy face from me 


in the day when I am in trouble; incline Thine ear unto 
me : in the day when I call answer me speedily." 
Listening to these words, he seemed to gain fresh 
strength, and began to speak again of his departure, 
and express the desire that his funeral should be of 
the quietest and simplest sort. He thanked God that 
he was not now in Boston, where he had seen 
mourning performed with much pomp and outward 
show. He was always most averse to anything 
which could be construed as self-gratificationj whether 
of the living or the dead, and treasured the old Puri 
tanical simplicity of taste and order. 

His brother John had found it necessary to return 
for a few days to New Jersey, and the dying 
missionary looked in vain for his coming back, as 
promised, before he passed away. The daughter of 
his friend, Mr. Edwards, who had been his faithful and 
patient nurse all through his illness, and to whom he 
had been for some time much attached, came into his 
room, and he said farewell to her. 

Her father says of her that it pleased " God to take 
away this my dear child by death on the 1 4th of Feb 
ruary next following, after a short illness of five days, 
in the i8th year of her age. She was a person of 
much the same spirit with Mr. Brainerd. She had 
constantly taken care of and attended him in his sick 
ness for nineteen weeks before his death, devoting 
herself to it with great delight because she looked on 
him as an eminent servant of Jesus Christ. In this 
time he had much conversation with her on the things 
of religion ; and in his dying state often expressed to 
us, her parents, his great satisfaction concerning her 
true piety, and his confidence that he should meet her 
in heaven, and his high opinion of her, not only as a 
true Christian but as a very eminent saint ; one whose 
soul was uncommonly fed and entertained with things 
that appertain to the most spiritual, experimental, and 
distinguishing parts of religion ; and one who by the 
temper of her mind was fitted to deny herself for God, 



and to do good beyond any young woman whatsoever 
that he knew of. She had manifested a heart uncom 
monly devoted to God in the course of her life, many 
years before her death, and said on her deathbed that 
* she had not seen one minute for several years where 
in she desired to live one minute longer for the sake 
of any other good in life but doing good, living to 
God, and doing what might be for His glory." 

To her, in his fast-ebbing moments, Brainerd 
turned with love and said : " Dear Jerusha, are you 
willing to part with me ? I am quite willing to part 
with you ; I am willing to part with all my friends ; 
I am willing to part with my dear brother John, 
although I love him the best of any creature living ; 
I have committed him and all my friends to God, and 
can leave them with God. Though, if I thought 
I should not see you, and be happy with you in 
another world, I could not bear to part with you. 
But we shall spend a happy eternity together ! " 

Brainerd fell into a stupor, and did not revive again 
until his brother came in, and soon after the silver 
cord was loosed, the pitcher broken at the fountain, and 
murmuring, " He will come, He will not tarry, I shall 
soon be in glory, I shall soon glorify God with the 
angels," he fell asleep in Jesus, on Friday, the 9th of 
October, 1747. David Brainerd, with the language of 
the faithful and beloved, had reached at last the 
celestial city, which the glorious dreamer saw: 

" Now I saw in my dream that these two men went 
in at the gate ; and, lo, as they entered, they were 
transfigured, and they had raiment put on them which 
shone like gold. There were also that met them 
with harps and crowns, and gave them to them the 
harps to praise, and the crowns a token of honour. 
Then I heard in my dream that all the bells in the 
city rang again for joy, and it was said unto them, 
Enter ye into the joy of your Lord/ I also heard 
the men themselves, that they sang with a loud voice, 
saying, Blessing and honour and glory and power **e 


onto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the 
Lamb for ever and ever. 

" Now, just as the gates were opened to let in the 
men, I looked in after them, and, behold, the city 
shone like the sun, the streets also were paved with 
gold, and in them walked many men with crowns on 
their heads, palms in their hands, and golden harps to 
sing praises withal. 

" There were also of them that had wings, and they 
answered one another without intermission, Holy, 
holy, holy is the Lord-. 

" And after that they shut up the gates, which, when 
I had seen, I wished myself among them." 

" O sweet and blessed country, 
Shall I ever see thy face ? 

sweet and blessed country, 
Shall I ever win thy grace ? 

1 have the hope within me 
To comfort and to bless ! 

Shall I ever win the prize itself ? 
O tell me, tell me, Yes ! 

" Strive, man, to win that glory ; 
Toil man, to gain that light ; 
Send hope before to grasp it, 

Till hope be lost in sight. 
Exult, O dust and ashes, 

The Lord shall be thy part ; 
His only, His for ever, 
Thou shalt be, and thou art." 

Bernard of Cluny. 



" Shall we whose souls are lighted 

With wisdom from on high 
Shall we to men benighted 

The lamp of life deny ? 
Salvation, O Salvation ! 

The joyful sound proclaim, 
Till each remotest nation 

Has learned Messiah s name." Heber. 

WHO besides Brainerd have laboured for the 
Indians good ? What in the past has been 
the history of mission work to these tribes of 
Red men, and how far and with what meas 
ure of success is this noble toil pursued in our own 
day ? Such questions as these naturally may arise in 
the minds of those, who, from reading the preceding 
record of a good and faithful servant, may be inspired 
with a deeper interest in the race for whom he gave 
away his life. The history of Indian Missions is 
itself worthy of a volume, alive as it is with exciting 
episode, and rich in a martyrology which is not sur- 


passed by any similar work for Christ anywhere in 
the world. But it may not be out of place in antici 
pation of the questions just put to briefly narrate 
something of what has been done, and in these later 
days is being achieved for the salvation of these 

To go back very far, even to the fifteenth century, 
we find the Jesuits first in the field. They followed 
closely in the wake of the haughty Spaniard, who, by 
the galleons of his then unsurpassed navy, made for 
himself a footing on the shores of the West. It 
would be unjust to refuse a recognition of the heroic 
devotion and self-sacrifice of these missionary priests. 
The Gospel which they carried may have been a 
sadly corrupted message of God s mercy, but its pro 
pagation inspired these men with a zeal and self- 
renunciation which is worthy of all praise. When 
the great Catholic Queen, Isabella, gave special com 
mands that " great care should be taken of the religious 
instruction of the Indians," many there were who in 
the name of the Church leapt forward to do her 

England, the great religious as well as political 
antagonist of Spain, was equally alive to the spiritual 
needs of the Indians, and in the gallant ships which 
hunted for the Spanish fleet in distant waters were 
brave, good soldiers of the Cross, whose mission was 
to fight not carnal but spiritual foes. Thus we find on 
the deck with the Sir Richard Grenville, of that famous 
little craft The Revenge, one Thomas Hariot, of goodly 
memory, who stepping ashore among the Indians 
preached faithfully the Word of God. " Many times," 
says he in his notes, which have come down to 
us, " and in every towne where I came, according as 
I was able, I made declaration of the contents of the 
Bible ; that therein was set forth the true onely God 
and His mightie works, that therein was contained the 
true doctrine of salvation through Christ, with many 
particularities of miracles and chiefe points of religion 


as I was able then to utter and thought fit for the 

Doubtless in those far off days as in these present 
with us, the Protestant missionary found a double foe 
to fight in the united errors of Pagan and Romish 
superstition. With the Pilgrim Fathers came the 
first definite endeavour to speak amongst the Indian 
aborigines the saving truths of the Christian religion. 
When they landed and began to found their Plymouth 
colony, it was immediately declared that their aim 
was " a desire to advance the Gospel in these remote 
parts of the world, even if they should be but as 
stepping stones to those who were to follow them." 
In Massachusetts they adopted as a state emblem 
the figure of an Indian with a label from his mouth 
saying, " Come over and help us." Thus it has been 
truly said, "These Pilgrims and Puritans were the 
pioneers of the Protestant world in attempts to con 
vert the heathen to Christ. There were missionary 
colleges self-supporting missions composed of men 
who went on their own responsibility and at their 
own expense to establish their posterity among the 
heathen whose salvation they sought." In the first 
chapter of this book a sketch is given of John Eliot, a 
famous and successful missionary of that day, one 
whose name and work is deserving of a more com 
plete and worthier memorial in these present times of 
missionary interest. His Indian Bible published at 
Cambridge, near Boston, was the first and for many 
years the only edition of the Holy Scriptures in the 
vernacular. The work of Eliot and Mayhew and 
their praying Indians on the Island of Martha s 
Vineyard is a most interesting page in the history of 
these early missions in New England. 

The opening of the eighteenth century brings 
David Brainerd into view, taking up the noble labours 
of his Puritan predecessors. What manner of man 
he was, and what through the grace of God he was 
enabled to do, is set forth in this book ; it need only 


be affirmed that evidently upon him descended the 
prophet s mantle, and a double portion of the spirit 
of devotion and power. 

We now come to the time when General Oglethorpe 
laid the foundations of the colony of Georgia, and 
took with him a pioneer band of Moravian mission 
aries, who were destined to make history and inscribe 
their names indelibly in the record of distinguished 
service for Christ. One of this number was David 
Zeisberger, a man of apostolic character, who seemed 
to have had a charmed life, so wonderfully was he 
preserved amid a perilous career. In common with all 
the Brethren he was a man of peace, refusing to bear 
arms, and having the rare courage to accept the 
doctrines of the Sermon on the Mount as his rule of 
conduct, for which godly offence he became the butt 
of the white man s jealousy and spite, who, indeed, 
seems to have done his utmost to undermine the 
confidence of the Indians in their meek and devoted 
friend. He mastered the languages of the Six 
Nations, and when by persecution his Christian 
Indians were driven forth from Shekomeko, he founded 
the settlement of Gnadenhlitten or the " Tents of 
Grace." Everywhere the influence of his teaching was 
felt, and the Christian natives began to flock around 
him, and fresh settlements were formed, notably 
Friendenstadt, or the " Town of Peace," among the 
Iroquois ; and Schonbrunn, or " The Beautiful 
Spring," near Lake Erie. Soon afterwards the 
American War of Independence began, and the 
Moravian Brethren, staunchly refusing to take part 
with either side, were caught in the fiery storm, and 
suffered by the inroads and attacks of both whites 
and Indians. Drink had made the red men lawless 
and thirsty for outrage, and the Christian settlements 
were being constantly invaded, and the lives of the 
missionaries openly threatened. In vain did the 
friends of Zeisberger urge him to fly. He determined, 
even if it cost him his life, to remain loyally with his 


converts. " My heart does not allow me," says he in 
reply, " even so much as to think of leaving. Where 
the Christians stay I will stay. It is impossible for 
me to forsake them. If Edwards and I were to go 
they would be without a guide and would disperse. 
Our presence gives authority to the national assistants, 
and the Lord gives authority to us. He will not look 
upon our remaining here as foolhardiness. I make 
no pretensions to heroism ; but am by nature as 
timid as a dove. My trust is altogether in God, 
Never has He put me to shame, but always granted 
me the courage and the comfort I needed. I am 
about my duty, and even^if I should be murdered it 
will not be my loss but my gain." He lived long 
beyond the allotted three-score years and ten, and, 
like Eliot, saw in his last days the cruel obliteration 
of that work among the Indians, which he had given 
the energy of his lifetime to accomplish. 

Besides Ziesberger many others might be quoted, as 
for instance, Christian Rauch, who inspired the Indians 
with confidence and respect. One of them once seeing 
him peacefully sleeping in a hut amongst them, 
remarked, " This man cannot be a bad man. He 
fears no evil. He does not fear us who are so fierce, 
but he sleeps in peace, and puts his life in our hands." 

Among the Moravian missionaries who came out 
with General Oglethorpe was a young English 
clergyman, who with considerable high-church notions 
began to preach the Gospel to the Indians in Georgia. 
This was John Wesley, whose mission to Georgia 
was the means of bringing him in contact with the 
Brethren, and resulted in his own conversion and that 
glorious revival of religion in his own country, the 
fruits of which are being gathered in every part of 
the world to-day. 

The commencement of American missions to the 
Indians dates from a little gathering of students of 
Williams College, under a haystack in the rain, to 
pray for the heathen and devote themselves to the 


work of their salvation. The outcome of this first 
missionary meeting was the establishment of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. The New York Missionary Society had 
already, in 1801, sent Mr. Holmes to work among 
the Tuscaroras at the Falls of Niagara, to whom 
came the pitiful appeal from some chiefs : " We cry 
to you from the wilderness, our hearts ache while we 
speak to your ears. . . . Think, poor Indians must 
die as well as white men. We pray you, therefore, 
never to give over and leave poor Indians, but follow 
them in their dark times, and let our children always 
find you to be their friends when we are dead and no 

In 1818 the American Board sent missionaries to 
the Cherokees and Choctaws ; schools were founded, 
and there seemed every prospect of permanent suc 
cess, when the Indians were driven back beyond the 
Mississippi, and in despair many became slaves to 
drink, and fell away. In 1836 three missionaries, 
Mr. Spalding, Mr. Gray, and Dr. Whitman, traversed 
three thousand miles to reach the Kayuses and Nez 
Perec s Indians, and found them remarkably ready to 
receive the truth. During ten years great progress 
was made ; schools, printing presses, and a Christian 
church were founded ; but suddenly the unchristian 
natives burst upon the little mission house, treacher 
ously murdered the doctor, his wife, and his friends, 
and the whole community were brutally treated and 
dispersed. After this Mr. Stephen R. Riggs, and his 
wife, began work among the Dacotas and Sioux, and 
after much patient endurance, God gave these faithful 
witnesses great success, and, like Brainerd, they saw 
a remarkable revival of religion among the Indians. 
" A Dacota now began to think as an Englishman, 
Christ came into the language, the Holy Spirit began 
to pour sweetness and power into it." But upon this 
glad time there waited a season of persecution and 
distress ; and murderous outrage destroyed the workers, 


and dispersed the converts. Here seems to have 
followed a time when, on every hand, a policy of 
retreat and discomfiture seized the mission societies. 
The mission to the Chickasees was abandoned in 
1834 ; that to the Osages in 1836 ; to the Stockbridge 
tribe in 1848 ; to the Choctaws in 1859 ; to the Tus- 
caroras and Cherokees in 1860 twelve missions, and 
forty-five churches, which reached about one hundred 
thousand Indians, abandoned in twenty-six years ! 
Dr. Beard, of America, who vouches for these facts, 
says, " The question now asks itself, Why were not 
these hopeful missionary efforts to these pagan tribes 
more permanent ? What turned the tide of success, 
and left the missions stranded ? Here comes the story 
of dishonour. . . . Unscrupulous greed has hovered 
about the Indian reservations as waiting buzzards 
hover near the wounded creature upon whose flesh 
they would fatten. Lands granted to the Indians 
were encroached upon by the white people. These 
encroachments resisted led to war. Savage nature, 
wrought up with a sense of injustice, and burning for 
revenge, swept down upon the guilty intruder and 
settler alike with indiscriminate massacre." 

One of the most conspicuous instances of the mis 
sion work among the Indians being injured by the 
unchristian aggression of the white man was that of 
the treatment of the peaceful and enlightened Chero 
kee tribe, who had so far embraced civilised ideas as 
to found the town of Brainerd in Georgia. The 
efforts of the missionaries there had been crowned 
with much success ; but the State authorities were 
jealous of their influence with the natives, and at 
one time imprisoned two of them until the pressure 
of the Supreme Court, to which the missionaries 
appealed, enforced their release. The Indians were 
oppressed, deprived of their native government, and 
treated with the greatest injustice. Finally, a treaty 
was agreed upon, and for a consideration, wholly 
insufficient, the Cherokees were to be exported 


wholesale beyond the Mississippi. The way in 
which this was enforced, and its miserable results, 
is thus well described by one of the best and most 
impartial works of missionary history. " This treaty 
was bitterly opposed by the majority of the nation. 
They said, We feel it due to ourselves frankly to 
state that the Cherokee people do not and will not 
recognise the obligation of the instrument of Decem 
ber, 1835. We reject all its terms ; we will receive 
none of its benefits. If it is to be enforced upon us, 
it will be by your superior strength. We shall offer 
no resistance, but our voluntary assent will never be 
yielded. We are aware of the consequences ; but, 
while suffering them in all their bitterness, we shall 
submit our cause to an all-wise and just God, in 
whose Providence it is to maintain the cause of 
suffering innocence and unprotected feebleness. 

" On the strength of the treaty, however, prepara 
tions were made for their removal, and forts were 
built to guard against any opposition that might 
arise. The 23rd of May, 1838, was fixed upon as the 
day when the troops were to commence operations. 
When the day arrived few had made any prepara 
tions, and families were turned out wholesale from 
their houses and farms, and collected into bodies 
ready for their long march to the Arkansas country. 

" For a period of ten months the work of emigration 
went on, and during this period 10,000 people, divided 
into fourteen companies, travelled a distance of six 
or seven hundred miles, old and young, male and 
female, sick and healthy, none were spared, all were 
compelled to seek a new home away in the west. 
Before starting some of the companies were detained 
for a considerable time in their encampments, during 
which they remained idle, and were exposed to every 
kind of evil and temptation which proximity to the 
whites afforded. Often without sufficient tent 
accommodation they were greatly exposed to the 
inclemency of the severe winter of 1838-39, and many 


besides were very inadequately clothed. The result 
was a terrible mortality among them, not less than 
one-fourth of the whole dying on the journey, this 
being on an average twelve deaths a-day. 

" The work of the mission was greatly deranged by 
the embarrassed state of the political affairs of the 
Indians ; and when the missionaries were arrested 
and imprisoned, some of the stations became neglected 
and abandoned. Under the system of lottery by 
which the land was distributed, the premises of two 
of the mission stations were taken possession of by 
the men who had drawn the lots containing them, 
and the Board suffered considerable loss therefrom. 
The Cherokees, too, now imbibed a deep prejudice 
against the Christian religion. They found them 
selves robbed and despoiled of their most sacred and 
undisputed rights by a nation professing to be 
Christian ! They saw that those who taught them 
were themselves American citizens, and as such were 
partly responsible for those injuries done to them. 
The result was that a spirit of laxity grew up among 
the church members, and caused many to fall back 
into heathenism and superstition. Their own 
political condition occupied attention to such an 
engrossing extent that little heed was paid to religion, 
and the morals of the people suffered accordingly." * 

One of the most celebrated missionaries to the 
Indians in the present century was Peter Cartwright, 
the Methodist backwoods preacher. His own con 
version from a life of gaiety and gambling, and his 
subsequent call to go forth to preach to the Indians 
is full of interest. He married an excellent woman, 
who became his brave and faithful helpmeet, and 
with their little children they travelled hundreds of 
miles through roadless swamps and forests and 
swiftly flowing rivers. The influence of his preaching 
was almost as striking as that of Brainerd, at one 

* Cassell s " Conquests of the Cross," 


revival service we are told three hundred people lay 
upon the ground under conviction of sin. He stoutly 
opposed slavery, and, after enduring the discredit of 
emancipation principles, lived to see, at fourscore, the 
black man free. Others nobly followed up the work. 
Space fails to recount the remarkable missionary 
experiences of those who, during the past half-century, 
have given themselves freely for the salvation of the 
Indians. Each name, of which a bare mention can 
alone be given here, deserves a record in the annals 
of holy enterprise. How nobly Riggs and his devoted 
wife laboured among the Dacotas, how he compiled an 
invaluable dictionary of 16,000 native words, and how, 
with a party of sixty Christian men and women, they 
retreated a hundred miles across the prairie from the 
fury of the Indians maddened rage. How Finley 
formed a Church among the Wyandotts, and had a 
grand helper in a converted chief, by name " Sum- 
mun-de-wet," how Breck spent nearly forty years 
amongst the Chippewas, how Jackson and Mrs. 
MacFarland preached the Gospel in Alaska, how 
Wilson and his wife founded the native community 
at Sarnia, on the Garden River, what Case and 
Copway did in the midst of the Ojibways, the faith 
ful service of Macdonald and Kirby in the Youcan 
district, and of Duncan at Fort Simpson. Besides 
these, mention must be made of three native Indian 
missionaries, Peter Jones, John Sunday, and Henry 
Sternheur, who were called upon to " hold the fort " 
for Christ among their brethren, and were much 
blessed in their work. Amongst missionaries of our 
own time, perhaps the name of the Rev. Egerton R. 
Young is most distinguished, one who has described 
his work among the Cree and Salteaux Indians in a 
volume of charming interest. 

Nearly all branches of the Christian Church have 
been and are represented in this work of spreading 
the good news of salvation among the denizens of the 
wigwams. The New England Company, which, 


founded so far back as 1649, may be deemed the 
parent Society, does still a great work among the 
Mohawks on the Grand River, and has there and 
elsewhere educational establishments for the young 
Indians. The Church Missionary Society established 
a mission station in 1822, and are now doing excellent 
work in the district of Saskatchewan, among the Plain 
Crees, Sioux, and Blackfeet. The missions of the 
Unitas Fratrum or Moravians with its honourable 
history is still doing good among the Alaska Indians 
and Eskimos and Greenlanders. Societies which are 
indigenous to American soil do not forget the claims 
of the red man, the American Board, Baptist Union, 
Methodist Episcopal, Reformed Episcopal, Presbyter 
ian Board, Mennonites, Bible Society and Society of 
Friends, are all more or less engaged in this work. 
The dispersal of the tribes, and the recent conflict at 
the Pine Ridge Agency, has, however, affected the pro 
gress of these efforts. In all his troubles and vicissi 
tudes, the redskin is not forgotten by many who still 
believe that he has an immortal soul to be won for 

One of the most intelligent and famous of North 
American Indians, the chief Sitting Bull, who perished 
recently in a conflict with the whites, once said, 
" There is not one white man who loves an Indian, 
and not a true Indian but hates a white man." The 
bitterness of this declaration cannot be measured. 
But it is hoped that the perusal of the preceding 
pages will show that in the case of David Brainerd 
and many others since his day, it is happily possible 
for a white man to have a heart full of Christlike 
affection for his red brother, who, on his part, is not 
slow in reciprocating the fellowship of a common 



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The Firebrands of the Caspian : The Story of a Bold Enter 
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A Desert Scout : A Tale of Arabi s Revolt. By Wm. Johnston. 

Cormorant Crag: A Tale of the Smuggling Days. By G. Man 
ville Fenn. Eight Illustrations by W. Rainey, R.I. 

One of the Tenth : A Tale of the Royal Hussars. By William 
Johnston. Six Illustrations. 

Lost in the Slave Land ; or, The Mystery of the Sacred Lamp 
Rock. By W. M. Graydon. Six Illustrations. 

Ice-Bound ; or, The Anticosti Crusoes. By Edward Roper, 
F.R.G.S. Six Illustrations. 

On Winding Waters: A Tale of Adventure and Peril By 
William Murray Graydon. Six Illustrations. 

Under the Sirdar s Flag. By William Johnston. Six Illus 

Catalogue of Books Published 

2S. 6d. eaCh (continued). 
RED MOUNTAIN" SERIES (continued). 

Dorothy : The Coombehurst Nightingale. By E. M. Alford. 
The Boy from Cuba : A School Story. By Walter Rhoades 

The Fighting Lads of Devon : or, In the Days of the Armada. 
By William Murray Graydon. 

A Trip to Many Lands. By W. J. Forster. Illustrated with 26 
full-page Pictures. 4to. Cloth gilt. 

The Crystal Hunters : A Boy s Adventures in the Higher Alps. 
By G Manville Fenn. 

First in the Field : A Story of New South Wales. By G. 
Manville Fenn. 416 pages. 

Great Works by Great Men : The Story of Famous Engineers 
and their Triumphs. By F. M. Holmes. 

The Lady of the Forest By L. T. Meade. 

The Red Mountain of Alaska. By Willis Boyd Allen. 

The Two Henriettas. By Emma Marshall. 

Popular Works by Miss Charlotte Murray. 

From School to Castle. By Charlotte Murray. Illustrated. 
Large Crown 8vo. Cloth boards. 

Coral : A Sea Waif and her Friends. 268 pages. Six Illustra 
tions. Cloth boards. 

Stuart s Choice ; or, Castleton s " Prep." Crown 8vo. 288 
pages. Six Illustrations. Cloth boards. 

Muriel Malone ; or, From Door to Door. Illustrated. Crown 
8vo. 272 pages. Cloth boards. 

Through Grey to Gold. Crown 8vo. 280 pages. Six Illus 
trations. Cloth boards. 

Love Conquereth ; or, The Mysterious Trespasser. (See under 
Home Library. 2s.) 

Wardlaugh; or, Workers Together. (See under Home Library. 2s.) 

By S. W. Partridge & Co. j 

2s. 6d. each (a^mW). 

Ferrar Fentorfs ^Translations of the Holy Scriptures 
in Modern TLnglish. 2s. 6d. each net. 

Vol. I. The Five Books of Moses. 

Vol. II. The History of Israel. 

Vol. III. The Books of the Prophets. 

Vol. IV. The Psalms, Solomon, and Sacred Writers. 

Vol. V. The New Testament. 

The Complete Bible in Modern English. Incorporating the 

above five volumes. Cloth extra, gilt top. IDS. net. 

James Flanagan : The Story of a Remarkable Career. By 

Dennis Crane. Crown 8vo. Fully Illustrated. Cloth boards. 

2S. 6d. net. 
The Earnest Life. By Silas K. Hocking. Crown 8vo. 192 

pages. With portrait and autograph. Handsomely bound in 

cloth boards. 
Stories of Self-Help : Recent and Living Examples of Men 

Risen from the Ranks. By John Alexander. Well Illustrated. 
A Young Man s Mind. By J. A. Hammerton. Crown 8vo. 

Cloth extra, gilt top. 
The Romance of the Bible. The Marvellous History of the 

British and Foreign Bible Society. By Charles F. Bateman. 

Crown 8vo. Cloth. 
Crown and Empire : A Popular Account of the Lives, Public 

and Domestic, of Edward VII- and Queen Alexandra. By Alfred 

E. Knight. Large Crown 8vo. 33 6 pages. Cloth boards. 

Our Rulers from William the Conqueror to Edward VII. 

By J. Alexander. Foolscap 410 Cloth gilt. Sixty beautiful 
Illustrations. Attractively bound. 

The Great Siberian Railway : What I saw on my Journey. By 
Dr. F. E. Clark. Crown 8vo. 213 pages. Sixty-five First-class 
Illustrations on art paper, and a Map. Handsomely bound. 

Chaplains at the Front. By One of Them. Incidents in the 
Life of a Chaplain during the Boer War, 1899-1900. By Owen 
Spencer Watkins, Acting Wesleyan Chaplain to His Majesty s 
Forces. Crown 8vo. 334 pages. Handsomely bound. 

Lord Roberts of Kandahar, V.C. : The Life-Story of a Great 
Soldier. By Walter Jerrold. Crown 8vo. Eight Illustrations. 
Handsomely bound in cloth boards. 2s. 6d. net. 

Sir Redvers H. Buller, V.C. : The Story of His Life and Cam 
paigns. By Walter Jerrold, Crown 8vo. 218 pages. With 
8 Illustrations. 2s. 6d net. 

Catalogue of Books Published 

2S. 6d. each (continued.) 

Following Jesus : A Bible Picture Book for the Young. Size, 
13^ by 10 inches. Contains 12 beautifully coloured Old and New 
Testament Scenes, with appropriate letterpress by D.J.D. 

Brought to Jesus : A Bible Picture Book for Little Readers. 
Containing 12 New Testament Scenes, printed in colours. Size, 
13$ by 10 inches. Handsome coloured boards. 

Bible Pictures and Stories : Old and New Testament. In one 
Volume. Bound in handsome cloth, with 89 full-page Illustrations 
by Eminent Artists. 

Light for Little Footsteps ; or, Bible Stories Illustrated. With 
beautiful coloured Cover and Frontispiece. Full of Pictures. Size, 
13$ by 10 inches. 

Potters : their Arts and Crafts. Historical, Biographical and 
Descriptive. By John C. Sparks and Walter Gandy. Crown 8vo. 
Copiously Illustrated. Cloth extra. 

The Story of Jesus. For Little Children. By Mrs. G. E. 
Morton. New Edition. Large 8vo. 340 pages. Eight pictures 
in best style of colour-work, and many other Illustrations. Hand 
somely bound in cloth boards. 

Victoria : Her Life and Reign. By Alfred E. Knight. Crown 
8vo. 384 pages. Cloth extra, as. 6d. ; fancy cloth, gilt edges 
33. 6d. 

2s. each. 

The Home Library. 

Crown 8vo. 320 pages. Handsome Cloth Covers. 
Fully Illustrated. 

True unto Death : a Story of Russian Life. By E. F. Pollard. 
By Bitter Experience : A Story of the Evils of Gambling. By 

Scott Graham. 
Love Conquereth; or, The Mysterious Trespasser. By 

Charlotte Murray. 
White Ivory and Black, and other Stories of Adventure by Sea 

and Land. By Tom Bevan, E. Harcourt Burrage, and John 

The Adventures of Don Lavington ; or, In the Days of the 

Press Gang. By G. Manville Fenn. 
Roger the Ranger : A Story of Border Life among the Indians. 

By E. F. Pollard. 
Brave Brothers ; or, Young Sons of Providence. By E. M. 


By S. W. Partridge < Co. 9 

2S. eaCh (continued). 
THE HOME LIBRARY (continued). 

The Moat House ; or, Celia s Deceptions. By Eleanora H. 

The White Dove of Amritzir : A Romance of Anglo-Indian 
Life. By E. F. Pollard. 

In Battle and Breeze : Sea Stories by G. A. Henty, G. Manville 
Fenn, and J. Higginson. 

Crag Island ; or The Mystery of Val Stanlock. By W. Murray 

Wild Bryonie. By Jennie Chappell. 

Edwin, the Boy Outlaw ; or, The Dawn of Freedom in England. 
A Story of the Days of Robin Hood. By J. Frederick Hodgetts. 

Manco, the Peruvian Chief. By W. H. G. Kingston. Illus 
trated by Lancelot Speed. 

Neta Lyall. By Flora E. Berry, Author of " In Small Corners, : 
etc. Six Illustrations. 

Robert Aske : A Story of the Reformation. By E. F, Pollard. 
Eight Illustrations. 

John Burleigh s Sacrifice. By Mrs. Charles Garnett. Nine 
teen Illustrations. 

The Lion City of Africa. By Willis Boyd Allen. Sixteen 

Aveline s Inheritance. By Jennie Chappell. 

The Better Part. By Annie S. Swan. 

Cousin Mary. By Mrs. Oliphant. 

Dorothy s Training; or, Wild-flower or Weed? By Jennie 

Honor : A Nineteenth-Century Heroine. By E. M. Alford. 
Her Saddest Blessing. By Jennie ChappelL 

The Inca s Ransom : A Story of the Conquest of Peru. By 
Albert Lee. 

John : A Tale of the Messiah. By K. Pearson Woods. 

Jacques Hamon ; or, Sir Philip s Private Messenger. By Mary 
E. Ropes. 

Leaders into Unknown Lands. By A. Montefiore-Brice, F.G.S. 
Lights and Shadows of Forster Square. By Rev. E. H. 

Sugden, M.A. 
The Last Earl Grahame. By Rev, J. M. Dryerre, L.L.B. 

io Catalogue of Books Published 

Zs. each (cuntw^d}. 

THH HOME LIBRARY (continued) 

The Martyr of Kolin ; A Story of the Bohemian Persecution. 

By H. O. Ward. 
Morning Dew-Drops : A Temperance Text Book. By Clara 

Lucas Balfour. 

Mark Desborough s Vow. By Annie S. Swan. 
Norman s Nugget By J. Macdonald Oxley, B.A. 
A Puritan Wooing : A Tale of the Great Awakening in New 

England. By Frank Samuel Child. 
Petrel Darcy ; or, In Honour Bound. By T. Corrie. 
A Polar Eden ; or, The Goal of the "Dauntless." By Charlee 

R. Kenyon 

The Strait Gate. By Annie S. Swan. 
The Spanish Maiden : A Story of Brazil. By Emma E. Horni- 


Wardlaugh ; or, Workers Together. By Charlotte Murray. 
The Wreck of the " Providence." By Eliza F. Pollard. 
Alfred the Great : The Father of the English. By Jesse Page. 

Library of Standard Works by Famous Authors. 

Crown 8vo. Bound in handsome Cloth Boards. Well illustrated. 
Hans Andersen s Fairy Tales. With Twelve Illustrations 

by Helen Stratton. 

The Old Lieutenant and His Son. By Norman McLeod. 

Coral Island. By R. M. Ballantyne. 

Nettie s Mission. Stories Illustrative of the Lord s Prayer. 

By Alice Gray. 

Home Influence : A Tale for Mothers. By Grace Aguilar. 
The Gorilla Hunters. By R. M. Ballantyne. 
What Katy Did. By Susan Coolidge. 
Peter the Whaler. By w. H. G. Kingston. 
Melbourne House. By Susan Warner. 
The Lamplighter. By Miss Cummins. 
Grimm s Fairy Tales. Carefully chosen from the Tales col 

lected by the Brothers Grimm. 

The Swiss Family Robinson : Adventures on a Desert Island. 
Tom Brown s School-Days. By an Old Boy. 344 pages. 

Twelve Illustrations. 

Bv S. W. Partridge & Co. u 

2S. eaCh (continued). 

Little Women and Good Wives. By Louisa M. Alcot. 450 

pages. Six Illustrations. 

The Wide, Wide World. By Susan Warner. 478 pages. Six 

Danesbury House. By Mrs. Henry Wood. 332 pages. Six 

Stepping Heavenward. By E. Prentiss. 332 pages. Six Illus 

John Halifax, Gentleman. By Mrs. Craik. 540 pages. 

Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. By Daniel Defoe. 

Naomi ; or, The Last Days of Jerusalem. By Mrs. Webb. 

The Pilgrim s Progress. By John Bunyan. 416 pages. 

Uncle Tom s Cabin. By Harriet Beecher Stowe. 

Westward Ho ! By Chas. Kingsley. 

Large Crown 8vo. 320 pages. Full of Illustrations. Handsomely bound 
in Cloth Boards. 2s. each. 

Two Great Explorers : The Live? of Fridtjof Nansen, and 

Sir Henry M. Stanley. 
Heroes of Land and Sea : Firemen and their Exploits, and 

the Lifeboat. 

My Dogs in the Northland. By EgertonR. Young. 288 p ages 

Many Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Cloth. 
Bunyan s Folk of To-day ; or, The Modern Pilgrim s Progress. 

By Rev. J. Reid Howatt. Twenty Illustrations. Crown 8vo. Cloth 

Sunday Afternoons with My Scholars. By J. Attenborough. 

With portrait. Crown 8vo. 290 pages. Cloth gilt. 
Bible Light for Little Pilgrims. A Coloured Scripture Picture 

Roll. Contains 12 beautifully coloured Old and New Testament 

Scenes, with appropriate texts. Varnished cover printed in 10 

colours. Mounted on Roller for hanging. 
Platform, Pulpit and Desk ; or, Tools for Workers. Being 

148 Outline*ddresses on all Phaser of the Temperance Movement 

for all Ages and Classes. By W. N. Edwards, F.C.S. With an 

Introductionby Canon Barker. Crown 8vo. 300 pages. 
Bible Picture Roll. Containing a large Engraving of a Scripture 

Subject, with letterpress, for each day in the month. Mounted on 

Roller for hanging. 
Love, Courtship, and Marriage. By Rev. F. B. Meyer, B.A. 

Crown 8vo. 152 pages, Embellished cloth cover. 2s. net. Full 

gilt edges, 2s, 6d. net. 

12 Catalogue of Books Published 

Is. 6d. each. 

Partridge } s Eigbteenpenny Series 

Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Well Illustrated and Attractively Bound. 
A String of Pearls. By E. F. Pollard. 

Elsie Macgregor ; or, Margaret s Little Lass. By Ramsay Guthrie. 
The Lady of the Chine. By M. S. Haycraft. 
Carola s Secret. By Ethel F. Heddle. 
The Home of His Fathers. By Lillias Campbell Davidson. 
A Great Patience. By L. Moberley. 
In the Bonds of Silence. By J. L. Hornibrook. 
A Late Repentance. By Hannah B. Mackenzie. 
Shepherds and Sheep. By E. Stuart- Langford. 
The Golden Doors. By M. S. Haycraft. 
A Noble Champion. By David Hobbs. 

T/ie Up-to-date Library. 

Of Thick Crown 8vo. Volumes. 320 pages. Many Illustrations. 

Cloth Boards. 

Mick Tracy, the Irish Scripture Reader. By the Author of 
" Tim Doolan." 

Grace Ashleigh. By Mary D. R. Boyd. 

Without a Thought ; or, Dora s Discipline. By Jennie 


Edith Oswald ; or, Living for Others. By Jane M. Kippen. 
A Bunch of Cherries. By J. W. Kirton. 
A Village Story. By Mrs. G. E. Morton. 
The Eagle Cliff. By R. M. Ballantyne. 
More Precious than Gold. By Jennie Chappell. 
The Slave Raiders of Zanzibar, By E. Harcourt Burrage. 
Ester Ried. By Pansy. 

Avice : a Story of Imperial Rome. By E. F. Pollard. 
The King s Daughter. By Pansy. 

The Foster Brothers ; or, Foreshadowed. By Mrs. Morton. 
The Household Angel. By Madeline Leslie. 
The Green Mountain Boys : a Story of the American War 

Independence. By E. F. Pollard. 

A Way in the Wilderness. By Maggie Swan, 
Miss Elizabeth s Niece. By M. S. Haycraft. 
The Man of the House. By " Pansy." 

By S. W. Partridge & Co. 13 

IS, 6d, eaCh (continued}. 
THE UP-TO-DATE LIBRARY (continued). 

Olive Chauncey s Trust : a Story of Life s Turning Points. 

By Mrs. E. R. Pitman. 

Whither Bound ? a Story of Two Lost Boys. By Owen Landor. 
Three People. By " Pansy." 
Chrissy s Endeavour. By " Pansy." 
The Young Moose Hunters. By C. A. Stephens. 
Eaglehurst Towers. By Emma Marshall. 

Chilgoopie the Glad : a Story of Korea and her Children. By 

Jean Perry. With eight Illustrations on art paper, and bound in 

cloth boards. 
The Man in Grey ; or, More about Korea. By Jean Perry. 

Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Cloth boards. 
More Nails for Busy Workers. By C. Edwards, Author of " A 

Box of Nails for Busy Christian Workers," etc. Crown 8vo. 196 

pages. Cloth boards. 
Queen Alexandra : the Nation s Pride. By Mrs. C. N. 

Williamson. Crown 8vo. Tastefully bound, is. 6d. net. 
King and Emperor : the Life- History of Edward VII. By 

Arthur Mee. Crown 8vo. Cloth boards, is. 6d. net. 
William McKinley : Private and President. By Thos. Cox 

Meech. Crown 8vo. 160 pages, with Portrait, is. 6d. net. 
Studies of the Man Christ Jesus. His Character, His Spirit, 

Himself. By R. E. Speer. Cloth, gilt top. is. 6d. net. 
Studies of the Man Paul. By Robert E. Speer. Long 8vo. 

304 pages. Cloth gilt. is. 6d. net. 
The Angel and the Demon ; and other Stories. ByE.Thorney- 

croft Fowler. Cloth gilt. Eight Illustrations. 
A Measuring Eye. By E. Stuart- Langford. Illustrated. Cloth 

Wellington : the Record of a Great Military Career. By A. E. 

Knight. Crown 8vo. Cloth gilt, with Portrait, is 6d. net. 
Hector Macdonald ; or, The Private who became a General. By 

T. F G Coates Crown 8vo. Cloth gilt, with Portrait, is. 6d. net. 
Baden-Powell : The Hero of Mafeking. By W. Francis Aitken. 

Crown 8vo. Cloth gilt, with Portrait, is. 6d. net. 

Every-day Life in South Africa. By E. E. K. Lowndes. Crown 

8vo. Illustrated. Cloth boards, is. 6d. net. 
The Royal Life. By Rev. J. C. Carlile. Crown 8vo. 128 pages. 

Cloth gilt. 
Insects : Foes and Friends. By W. Egmont Kirby, M.D., F.L.S. 

32 pages of Coloured Illustrations. Cloth boards. 

14 Catalogue of Books Published 

Is. 6d. each 

The British Boys Library. 

Fully Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 168 tages. Cloth extra. 

The Adventures of Ji. By G. E. Farrow, Author of " The 
Wallypugof Why." 

Missionary Heroes : Stories of Heroism on the Missionary Field, 
By C. D. Michael. 

Andrew Bennett s Harvest ; or, The Shadow of God s Provi 
dence. By Lydia Phillips. 

Brown Al ; or, A Stolen Holiday. By E. M. Stooke. 

The Pigeons Cave : A Story of Great Orme s Head in 1806. 
By J. S. Fletcher. 

Robin the Rebel. By H. Louisa Bedford. 
Runaway Rollo. By E. M. Stooke. 

Success : Chats about Boys who have Won it. By C. D. 

Well Done ! Stories of Brave Endeavour. Edited by C. D. 

The Wonder Seekers. By Henry J. Barker, M.A. 

Little Soldiers. By Kate L. Mackley. 

Will ; or, That Boy from the Union. By Lydia Phillips. 

Noble Deeds : Stories of Peril and Heroism. Edited by C. D. 

Armour Bright : The Story of a Boy s Battles. By Lucy 

Ben : A Story of Life s Byways. By Lydia Phillips. 

Major Brown ; or, Whether White or Black, a Man. By Edith 
S. Davis. 

Jack. A Story of a Scapegrace. By E. M. Bryant. 

Hubert Ellerdale : A Tale of the Days of Wicliffe, By W. 
Oak Rhind. 

By S. W. Partridge & Co. 15 

IS. 6d, eaCh (continued). 
The British Girls Library. 

Fully Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Cloth extra. 
The Mystery Baby ; or, Patsy at Fellside. By Alice M. Page. 
Zillah, the Little Dancing Girl. By Mrs. Hugh St. Leger. 
Patsie s Bricks. By L. S. Mead. 

Salome s Burden ; or, The Shadow on the Homes. By Eleanora 

H. Stooke. 

Heroines : True Tales of Brave Women. By C. D. Michael. 
Granny s Girls. By M. B. Manwell. 

Mousey ; or, Cousin Robert s Treasure. By Eleanora H. 

Marigold s Fancies. By L. E. Tiddeman. 

" Our Phyllis." By M. S. Haycraft. 

The Lady of Greyham ; or, Low in a Low Place. By Emma 
E. Hornibrook. 

The Gipsy Queen. By Emrna Leslie. 

Kathleen ; or, A Maiden s Influence. By Julia Hack. 

The Rajah s Daughter; or, The Half-Moon Girl. By Bessie 


In Self-Defence. By Julia Hack. 

Regia; or, Her Little Kingdom. By E. M. Waterworth and 
Jennie Chappell. 

Una s Marriage. By Mrs. Haycraft. 

Tephi : An Armenian Romance. By Cecilia M. Blake. 

Queen of the Isles. By Jessie M. E. Saxby. 

Picture Books. 

Size 9 by 7 inches. Coloured and numerous other Illustrations. Handsome 
Coloured Cover, Paper Boards with Cloth Back. 

Happy and Gay : Pictures and Stones for Every Day. By 

D. J. D. 
Pleasures and Joys for Girls and Boys. By D. J. D. 

Anecdotes of Animals and Birds. By Uncle John. 
Stories of Animal Sagacity. By D. J. D. 

1 6 Catalogue of Books Published 

IS. 6d. each (continued). 
" The World s Wonders " Series. 

Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Copiously Illustrated. Handsome Cloth Covers. 

The Conquest of the Air : The Romance of Aerial Navigation. 
By John Alexander. 

Surgeons and their Wonderful Discoveries. By F. M. 

The Life-Boat : Its History and Heroes. By F. M. Holmes. 

Firemen and their Exploits. With an Account of Fire Brigades 
and Appliances. By F. M. Holmes. 

The Romance of the Savings Banks. By Archibald G 


The Romance of Glass Making. A Sketch of the History of 

Ornamental Glass. By W. Gandy. 

The Romance of the Post-Office : Its Inception and Won 

drous Development. By Archibald G. Bowie. 
Marvels of Metals. By F. M. Holmes. 
Triumphs of the Printing Press. By Walter Jerrold. 
Electricians and their Marvels. By Waiter Jerrold. 
Musicians and their Compositions. By J. R. Griffiths. 
Naturalists and their Investigations. By George Day, F.R.M.S. 

Devotional Classics. 

A New Series of Devotional Books by Standard Authors. Well printed on 

good paper. Size 6% by 4\ inches. Beautifully bound in 

Cloth Boards. 1s. 6d. each, NET. 

(Not illustrated.) 

The Imitation of Christ. By Thomas Kempis. 
The Holy War. By John Bunyan. 

Letters on the Simple Life. By the Queen of Roumania, Marie 
Corelli, Madame Sarah Grand, " John Oliver Hobbes," Sir A. 
Conan Doyle, The Bishop of London, Canon Hensley Henson, 
Sir J. Crichton Browne, Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Dr Robertson 
Nicoll, etc. Crown 8vo. 160 pages. With Autographs of con 
tributors in fac-sirnile Imitation Linen, is. net. Cloth boards, 
is. 6d. net. (Not illustrated.) 

By S. W. Partridge & Co. 21 

Is. each. 

One Shilling Reward Books. 

Fully Illustrated. Crown 8vo. Cloth extra. 

True Stories of Brave Deeds ; or, What Boys and Girls can 

Do. By Mabel Bowler. 
The Mystery of Marnie. By Jennie Chappell. 

Gipsy Kit ; or, The Man with the Tattooed Face. By Robert 

Dick s Desertion ; A Boy s Adventures in Canadian Forests 

By Marjorie L. C. Pickthall. 
The Wild Swans ; or, The Adventure of Rowland Cleeve. By 

Mary C. Rowsell. 
George & Co. ; or, The Choristers of St. Anselm s. By Spencer 

T. Gibb. 
Fei n Dacre : A Minster Yard Story. By Ethel Ruth Boddy. 

Caravan Cruises : Five Children in a Caravan not to mention 

Old Dobbin. By Phil Ludlow. 
Other Pets and their Wild Cousins. By Rev. J. Isabell, F.E.S. 

Many Illustrations. 
Little Chris the Castaway. By F. Spenser. 

The Children of the Priory. By J. L. Hornibrook. 

Through Sorrow and Joy ; or, The Story of an English Bible in 
Reformation Times. By M. A. R. 

Tom and the Enemy. By Clive R. Fenn. 

Ruth s Roses ; or, What Some Girls Did. By Laura A. Barter- 

In Paths of Peril : A Boy s Adventures in Nova Scotia. By 

J. Macdonald Oxley. 
Pets and their Wild Cousins : New and True Stories of 

Animals. By Rev. J. Isabell, F.E.S. 

A Brother s Need. By L. S. Mead. Crown 8vo. 128 pages. 
Sunshine and Snow. By Harold Bindloss. 
Donalblane of Darien. By J. Macdonald Oxley. 
Crown Jewels. By Heather Grey. 

At the Bend of the Creek. By E. Gertrude and Annie A. Hart. 
All Play and No Work. By Harold Avery. 
Bernard or Ben ? By Jennie Chappell. 

Always Happy ; or, The Story of Helen Keller. By Jennie 

22 Catalogue of Books Published 

IS. each (continued). 

Birdie and her Dog, and other Stories of Canine Sagacity. By 
Miss Phillips (Mrs. H. B. Looker). 

Bessie Drew ; or, The Odd Little Girl. By Amy Manifold. 

Cola Monti ; or, The Story of a Genius. By Mrs. Craik, Author 
of "John Halifax, Gentleman." 

The Children of Cherryholme. By M. S. Haycraft. 
The Fatal Nugget. By E. Harcourt Burrage. 

Frank Burleigh ; or, Chosen to be a Soldier. By Lydia 


Harold ; or, Two Died for Me. By Laura A. Barter. 
Indian Life in the Great North-West. By Egerton R. Young, 

Missionary to the North American Indian Tribes. 
Jack the Conqueror ; or Difficulties Overcome. By the 
Author of " Dick and his Donkey." 

Little Bunch s Charge ; or, True to Trust. By Nellie Corn 
Lost in the Backwoods. By Edith C. Kenyon. 

The Little Woodman and his Dog Caesar. By Mrs. Sher 

Our Den. By E. M. Waterworth. 
Paul the Courageous. By Mabel Quiller-Couch. 
Roy s Sister; or, His Way and Hers. By M. B. Manwell. 
Raymond s Rival ; or, Which will Win ? By Jennie Chappell. 
Sweet Nancy. By L. T. Meade. 
Who was the Culprit? By Jennie Chappell. 

Is. each net. 

(Not Illustrated.) 

Partridge s Popular Reciter. Old Favourites and New. 208 
pages. Crown 8vo. Imitation Cloth, is. net ; Cloth boards, 
is. 6d. net. 

Partridge s Humorous Reciter (uniform with Partridge s Popular 
Reciter), Imitation Cloth, is. net; Cloth boards, is. 6d. net. 

By S. W. Partridge & Co. 23 

IS. eaCh (continued). 

Cheap Reprints of Popular Booty for the Toung. 

Crown 8vo. 160 pages. Illustrated. Cloth Boards, 1s. each. 

Heroes All ! A Book of Brave Deeds. By C. D. Michael. 
The Old Red Schoolhouse. By Frances H. Wood. 
Christabel s Influence. By J. Goldsmith Cooper. 

Deeds of Daring ; or, Stories of Heroism in Everyday Life 
By C. D. Michael. 

Everybody s Friend ; or, Hilda Danver s Influence. By Evelyn 
Everett Green. 

The Bell Buoy ; or, The Story of a Mysterious Key. By F. M 

Saph s Foster-Bairn. By Rev. A. Colbeck. 

Vic : A Book of Animal Stories. By Alfred C. Fryer, Ph.D., 


In Friendship s Name. By Lydia Phillips. 
Nella ; or, Not my Own. By Jessie Goldsmith Cooper. 
Blossom and Blight. By M. A. Paull. 
Aileen. By Laura A. Barter- Snow. 
Satisfied. By Catherine Trowbridge. 

Ted s Trust; or, Aunt Elmerley s Umbrella. By Jennie 

A Candle Lighted by the Lord. By Mrs. E. Ross. 

Alice Western s Blessing. By Ruth Lamb. 

Tamsin Rosewarne and Her Burdens: A Tale of Cornish 

Life. By Nellie Cornwall. 

Raymond and Bertha : A Story of True Nobility. By Lydia 

Gerald s Dilemma. By Emma Leslie. 

Fine Gold ; or, Ravenswood Courtney. By Emma Marshall. 

Marigold. By Mrs. L. T. Meade. 

Jack s Heroism. By Edith C. Kenyon. 

The Lads of Kingston. By James Capes Story. 

Her Two Sons : A Story for Young Men and Maidens. By 
Mrs. Charles Garnett. 

Rag and Tag : By Mrs. E. J. Whittaker. 
Through Life s Shadows. By Eliza F. Pollard. 

24 Catalogue of Books Published 

IS. 63.CF1 (continued.) 


The Little Princess of Tower Hill. By L. T. Meade. 

Clovie and Madge. By Mrs. G. S. Reaney. 

Ellerslie House: A Book for Boys. By Emma Leslie. 

Like a Little Candle ; or Bertrand s Influence. By Mrs. 
Hay craft. 

Louie s Married Life. By Sarah Doudney. 

The Dairyman s Daughter. By Legh Richmond. 

Bible Wonders. By Rev. Dr. Newton. 

The Pilgrim s Progress. By John Bunyan. 416 pages. Eight 

coloured and 46 other Illustrations. 
Our Duty to Animals. By Mrs. C. Bray. 

Onward" Temperance Library. 

Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Cloth extra. Is. each. 
A Western Waif. By Old Cornish. 
Addy s Two Lives. By Mrs. Ruth B. Yates. 
John Dudley s Secret; or, The Gambler s Daughter. By 

Edward Armytage. 

Suspected ; or, Under a Cloud. By A. J. Glasspool. 
Whispers to those who wish to Enjoy a Happy Life. By 

Rev. Benj. Smith. 

Snatched from Death. By Alfred J. Glasspool. 

Everyone s Library. 

A re-issue of Standard Works in a cheap form, containing from 320 
to 500 pages, printed in the best style; with Illustrations on art paper, 
and tastefully bound in Cloth Boards. 1s. each. 

The Coral Island. By R. M. Ballantyne. 

Hans Andersen s Fairy Tales. 

John Halifax, Gentleman. By Mrs. Craik. 

Little Women and Good Wives. By Louisa M. Alcott, 

Tom Brown s Schooldays. By an Old Boy. 

The Wide, Wide World. By Susan Warner. 

Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. By Daniel Defoe. 

Uncle Tom s Cabin. By H. B. Stowe. 

The Old Lieutenant and His Son. By Norman McLeod. 

By S. W. Partridge & Co. 25 

IS. each (continued). 
for Christian Workers. 

Large Crown 16mo. 128 pages. Chastely bound in Cloth Boards. 
1s. each. 

Deeper Yet : Meditations for the Quiet Hour. By Clarence E. 


The Master s Messages to Women. By Charlotte Skinner. 
Royal and Loyal : Thoughts on the Twofold Aspects of the 

Christian Life. By Rev. VV. H. Griffith-Thomas. 
Thoroughness : Talks to Young Men. By Thain Davidson 


Some Secrets of Christian Living. By Rev. F. B. Meyer. 
The Overcoming Life. By Rev. E. W. Moore. 
Marks of the Master. By Charlotte Skinner. 
Some Deeper Things. By Rev. F. B. Meyer. 
Steps to the Blessed Life. By Rev. F. B. Meyer. 
Daybreak in the Soul. By Rev. E. W. Moore. 
The Temptation of Christ By C. Arnold Healing, M.A. 
Keynotes to the Happy Life. By Charlotte Skinner. 
For Love s Sake. By Charlotte Skinner. 

Novelties, and How to Make them : Hints and Helps 
in providing occupation for Children s Classes. Compiled by 
Mildred Duff. Full of illustrations. Cloth boards, is. 

Ingatherings : A Dainty Book of Beautiful Thoughts. Compiled 
by E. Agar. Cloth boards, is. net. (Paper covers, 6d. net.) 

Golden Words for Every Day. By M. Jennie Street. A 
prettily illustrated Text Book for the Young. 

The Armour of Life. A Little Book of Friendly Counsel. 
Edited by J. A. Hammerton. Foolscap 8vo. Ninety-six pages. 

The New Cookery of Unproprietary Foods. By Eustace 

Miles, M.A. 192 pages, is. net, 
The Child s Book of Health. A Series of Illustrated and Easy 

Lessons for Children and Parents on taking care of ourselves. i3y 

Walter N. Edwards, F.C.S. is. net. 
Hiram Golfs Religion. By George H. Hepworth, D.D., Author 

of " The Life Beyond," etc. 128 pages. Cloth gilt. 
Eon the Good ; and other Verses. By Charlotte Murray. 

Crown 8vo. 
Uncrowned Queens. By Charlotte Skinner. Small 8vo. 112 

pages. Cloth. 

Victoria: the Well-Beloved. (1819-1901.) By W. Francis 
Aitken. Eight Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 152 pages. Cloth 

26 Catalogue of Books Published 

IS. Cadi (continued). 
New Series of One Shilling Picture 

Size 10% by 8 inches. 96 pages. Coloured Frontispiece and numerous other 
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colours and varnished. 

A Trip to Storyland. By R. V. 

Holiday Hours in Animal Land. By Uncle Harry. 

Animal Antics ! By the Author of " In Animal Land with Louis 

Happy Days. By R. V. 

Old Testament Heroes. By Mildred Duff. 

Feed My Lambs. Fifty-two Bible Stones and Pictures. By the 
Author of " The Friends of Jesus." 

Jesus the Good Shepherd. A Book of Bible Pictures in 

colours, with suitable letterpress. 

Tell Me a Tale ! A Picture Story Book for Little Children. 

Little Snow-Shoes Picture Book. By R. V. 

In Animal Land with Louis Wain. Coloured Frontispiece 
and many other of Louis Wain s striking animal pictures for the 

Two Little Bears at School. By J. D. 

Merry and Free. Pictures and Stories for our Little Ones. By 

R. V. 
Bible Pictures and Stories : Old Testament. By D. J. D. 

Bible Pictures and Stories: New Testament. By James 

Weston and D. J D. 

Pussies and Puppies. By Louis Wain. 

The Life of Jesus. By Mildred Duff. 112 pages. 

Gentle Jesus : A Book of Bible Pictures in colour. Size, u by 
8 inches. 

Commendations from all parts of the world have reached 
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By S. W. Partridge & Co. 27 

9d. each. 

Ninepenny Series of Illustrated Books. 

96 pages. Small Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Handsome Cloth Covers. 

Kibble & Co. By Jennie Chappell. 

Marjory ; or, What Would Jesus Do ? By Laura A. Barter- Snow. 

Brave Bertie. By Edith C. Kenyon. 

The Little Slave Girl. By Eileen Douglas. 

Marjorie s Enemy : A Story of the Civil War of 1644. By Mrs. 


Lady Betty s Twins. By E. M. Waterworth. 
A Venturesome Voyage. By F. Scarlett Potter. 

Out of the Straight ; or, The Boy who Failed and the Boy 
who Succeeded, By Noel Hope. 

Bob and Bob s Baby. By Mary E. Lester. 

Robin s Golden Deed. By Ruby Lynn. 

The Little Captain : A Temperance Tale. By Lynde Palmer. 

The Runaway Twins ; or, The Terrible Guardian. By Irene 

Grandmother s Child. By Annie S. Swan. 
Dorothy s Trust. By Adela Frances Mount. 

Grannie s Treasures ; and how they helped her. By L. E. 

His Majesty s Beggars. By Mary E. Ropes. 

Love s Golden Key. By Mary E. Lester. 

Faithful Friends. By C. A. Mercer. 

Only Roy. By E. M. Waterworth and Jennie Chappell. 

Aunt Armstrong s Money. By Jennie Chappell. 

The Babes in the Basket ; or, Daph and Her Charge. 

Bel s Baby. By Mary E. Ropes, 

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Edith Ruth Boddy. 

Carol s Gift; or, "What Time I am Afraid I will Trust in 
Thee." By Jennie Chappell. 

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A Flight with the Swallows. By Emma Marshall. 

28 Catalogue of Books Published 

9d. eaCh (continued.} 

The Five Cousins. By Emma Leslie. 

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For Lucy s Sake. By Annie S. Swan. 

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By E. Harcourt Burrage. 

John Oriel s Start in Life. By Mary Howitt. 

The Man of the Family. By Jennie Chappell. 

Mattie s Home ; or, The Little Match-girl and her Friends. 

Nan ; or, The Power of Love. By Eliza F. Pollard. 

Phil s Frolic. By F. Scarlett Potter. 

Paul : A Little Mediator. By Maude M. Butler. 

Rob and I ; or, By Courage and Faith, By C. A. Mercer. 

A Sailor s Lass. By Emma Leslie. 

Una Bruce s Troubles. By Alice Price. 

Won from the Sea. By E. C. Phillips (Mrs. H. B. Looker). 

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Imperial Svo. 128 pages. Illustrated covers with vignetted design 
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Jane Austen. 

E. P. Roe. 

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By S. W. Partridge & Co. 29 

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Off to Toyland ! By Uncle Jack. 
Going A-Sailing i By J. D. 
Follow the Flag. By J. D. 
Dollie Dimple. By J. D. 

Old Mother Bunnie ! A Picture Story Book for Laddies and 

Lassies. By J. D. 

Off We Go ! Pictures and Stories for Boys and Girls. By R. V. 
Sweet Stories Re-Told : A Bible Picture Book for Young Folks. 
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WILFUL JACK. By M. I. Hurrell. 


" ROAST POTATOES ! " A Temper 

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wick, M.A. 



IHA MINUTE!" By KeithMar- p Dppy . DoG TALS . 


Eleanora H. Stooke. A GREAT MISTAKE, 


; or. What can I 

do? By J. S. Woodhouse. BUY YOUR OWN CHERRIES. 


Keith Marlow. 



By Jetta Vogel. They Did. 

Catalogue of Books Published 


6d. each (continued). 
RED DAVE" SERIES (continued}. 

of it. By E. J . Romanes. 


By Beatrice Way. 
MIDGE. By L. E. Tiddeman. 

Henrietta S. Streatfeild. 


ENEMIES : a Tale for Little Lads 
and Lassies. 


JOE AND SALLY : or, A Good Deed 

and its Fruits. 


RED DAVE ; or, What Wilt Thou 

have Me to Do ? 




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Annie S. Swan. 


other Stories. 


Avic A Story of Imperial Rome. 








WISE TO WIN ; or, The Master 



By S. W. Partridge & Co. 

4d. each (continued). 
The Young Folds Library 

Of Cloth-bound Books. With Coloured Frontispiece. 64 pages. 
Well Illustrated. Handsome Cloth Covers. 


JACKO THE MONKEY, and other 







NITA ; cr, Among the Brigands. 

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New ^Pretty " Gift-Book " Series. 

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Size 6 by 5 inches. 








Paternoster Series of Popular Stories. 

An entirely New Series of Books, Medium 
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By Mrs. Ross. 

Annie S. Swan. 

Daph and her Charge. 

JENNY S GERANIUM; or, The Prize 

Flower of a London Court 

Hill. ByL. T. Meade. 

Macleod, D D. 

8vo. in size, 32 paqes, fully illustrated. 
Id. each. Titles as follows : 


M. A. R. 


Dog Caesar. By Mrs. Sherwood. 

GKORGE. By j. W. 

ROB AND I. By C. A. Mercer. 



32 S. W. Partridge & Co. s Catalogue. 

Partridge s Pictorial Magazines. 

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" There are no more attractive Annual Volumes than those Issued by S. W. PARTRIDGE 

The British Workman. Contains popular Articles and Stories 
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id. Monthly. 

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The Friendly Visitor. An Illustrated Magazine for the people, 
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id. Monthly. 

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The Children s Friend. Charming Stories, interesting Articles, 
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The Infants Magazine. No other periodical can be compared 
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YB 20506